Browsing by Author "Prendini, Lorenzo."
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ItemAn atlas of book lung fine structure in the order Scorpiones (Arachnida). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 316)(2008) Kamenz, Carsten.; Prendini, Lorenzo.The fine structure of the book lungs of scorpions is diverse and phylogenetically informative, but has not been comprehensively investigated across the major lineages of the order. In this contribution, we present a fully illustrated atlas of the variation in book lung fine structure among 200 exemplars from 100 genera and 18 families of extant scorpions. We document variation in the surface sculpturing of the respiratory lamellae, the edges of the lamellae in the atrial chamber, and the posterior valvelike edges of the spiracles. These data provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships among Recent scorpions at several branches of the tree. ItemCheliceral morphology in Solifugae (Arachnida) : primary homology, terminology, and character survey. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 394)(American Museum of Natural History., 2015-06-22) Bird, Tharina.; Wharton, Robert (Robert Alan); Prendini, Lorenzo.Arachnids of the order Solifugae (solifuges, false spiders, sun spiders, camel spiders, Walzenspinne, wind spiders) possess the largest jaws for body size among the Chelicerata. The chelicerae provide the most important character systems for solifuge systematics, including dentition and the male cheliceral flagellum, both used extensively for species delimitation and diagnosis. However, the terminology used for cheliceral characters is not standardized and often contradictory, in part because it fails to represent homologous structures among taxa. Misinterpretation of character homology may introduce errors in phylogenetic analyses concerning relationships within Solifugae and among the orders of Chelicerata. This contribution presents the first comprehensive analysis of cheliceral morphology across the order Solifugae, the aims of which were to provide a broad survey of cheliceral characters for solifuge systematics, to identify and reinterpret structures based on primary homology, to revise the terminology to be consistent with homology hypotheses, and to provide a guide to terminological synonyms and character interpretations in the literature. Chelicerae were studied in 188 exemplar species (17% of the total), representing all 12 solifuge families, 17 of the 19 subfamilies, 64 genera (46% of the total), and the full range of variation in cheliceral morphology across the order. In total, 157 species representing 49 genera and 17 subfamilies are illustrated. Hypotheses of character transformation, particularly concerning the male flagellum, and a standardized terminology, are presented. The functional morphology of the chelicerae is discussed and the role of sexually dimorphic modifications to the male chelicerae in mating behavior emphasized. The revised terminology, based on hypotheses of primary homology, will facilitate solifuge revisionary systematics and provide a stronger basis for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships within the order Solifugae and testing the phylogenetic position of the order within Chelicerata. ItemCryptic diversity of South African trapdoor spiders : three new species of Stasimopus Simon, 1892 (Mygalomorphae, Ctenizidae), and redescription of Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910. (American Museum novitates, no. 3732)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-02-13) Engelbrecht, Ian.; Prendini, Lorenzo.Three new species of Stasimopus Simon, 1892, are described from the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. They are readily distinguished from all other known Stasimopus species by the presence of spinules in the tarsal scopulae on the first two pairs of legs of adult males. The only described species recorded in the vicinity, Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910, which appears to be endemic to northern Gauteng Province, is redescribed. The four species are comprehensively illustrated, a key to identify the adult males from those of other new species in the region is provided, and their conservation status discussed. Available evidence suggests that many Stasimopus species remain to be discovered and described, but significant effort will be required to obtain adult males, considered important for accurate species delimitation in the genus. ItemDiscovery of the male of Parabuthus muelleri, and implications for the phylogeny of Parabuthus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). American Museum novitates ; no. 3408(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2003) Prendini, Lorenzo.; Harington, Alexis.The male of Parabuthus muelleri Prendini, 2000 is described, based on a specimen discovered in the Alexis Harington Scorpion Collection (recently acquired by the American Museum of Natural History). This is only the third known specimen of P. muelleri. The holotype and paratype are both female. The male presents several character states, including the lobate condition of the pectinal proximal median lamella and pedipalp chelae that are not incrassate, that are uncommon in male Parabuthus Pocock, 1890. These character states, previously scored with missing entries in a cladistic character matrix for Parabuthus species, are now added and a reanalysis of Parabuthus phylogeny, resulting in new insights about the phylogenetic position of P. muelleri, is presented. Lectotypes are designated for four northeastern African species of Parabuthus. ItemFirst reports of Razianus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from Iraq and Pakistan, descriptions of two new species, and redescription of Razianus zarudnyi. (American Museum novitates, no. 3806)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-06-24) Tahir, H. Muhammad (Hafiz Muhammad), 1980-; Navidpour, Shahrokh.; Prendini, Lorenzo.The scorpion fauna of Pakistan, like that of the rest of the Indian subcontinent, is poorly known and many new species may await discovery. We describe two new species of the buthid genus Razianus Farzanpay, 1987, i.e., Razianus birulai, sp. nov., and Razianus farzanpayi, sp. nov., the first records of this genus from Pakistan, raising the number of species in the genus to four and extending its distribution southeast. In addition, we redescribe the type species, Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903), report the first record from Iraq, extending the distribution of Razianus further west, plot the known locality records of the three species occurring in Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan, and provide a key to their identification. ItemThe genus Brachistosternus (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae) in Chile, with descriptions of two new species ; American Museum novitates, no. 3564(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2007) Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A.; Mattoni, Camilo I.; Prendini, Lorenzo.We review the taxonomy of the Brachistosternus Pocock, 1893 scorpions of Chile, providing revised diagnoses, comprehensive distribution maps (based on all known locality records), and an illustrated key to all Chilean species of the genus. Two new species, Brachistosternus (Leptosternus) chango, n.sp., and Brachistosternus (Leptosternus) kamanchaca, n.sp., are described from northern Chile. The phylogenetic affinities of B. chango are unclear. Some characters suggest that this species may be related to Brachistosternus (L.) artigasi Cekalovic, 1974 but others suggest that it may be related to Brachistosternus (L.) roigalsinai Ojanguren Affilastro, 2002. Brachistosternus kamanchaca, in contrast, appears to be closely related to Brachistosternus (L.) donosoi Cekalovic, 1974 and other species from the plains of northern Chile and southern Perú. ItemThe genus Hadruroides Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones, Iuridae), in Peru : new records and descriptions of six new species. (American Museum novitates, no. 3687)(American Museum of Natural History., 2010) Ochoa, J. A. (José A.); Prendini, Lorenzo.We review the taxonomy of the Hadruroides Pocock, 1893 (Iuridae: Caraboctoninae), scorpions of Peru, describe six new species from the north of the country, and report new records of other poorly known species. The description of these species raises to 16 the number of described species in the genus, 13 of which occur in Peru. Four species inhabit dry forest in northern Peru: H. charcasus (Karsch, 1879); H. chinchaysuyu, n. sp.; H. geckoi, n. sp.; H. leopardus Pocock, 1900. Three species occur in inter-Andean valleys along the Cordillera: H. bustamantei Ochoa and Chaparro, 2008; H. carinatus Pocock, 1900; H. mauryi Francke and Soleglad, 1980. Six species inhabit desert along the Pacific coast: H. aguilari Francke and Soleglad, 1980; H. graceae, n. sp.; H. juanchaparroi, n. sp.; H. lunatus (L. Koch, 1867); H. tishqu, n. sp.; H. vichayitos, n. sp. Most species of Hadruroides have restricted distributions, except H. charcasus and H. lunatus, which are apparently more widely distributed. We consider it necessary to reassess all previous records of the latter two species, because we suspect several are based on misidentifications. ItemGlacial relicts? A new scorpion from Mount Olympus, Greece (Euscorpiidae: Euscorpius) (American Museum novitates, no. 4003)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-11-09) Blasco-Aróstegui, Javier.; Prendini, Lorenzo.Mediterranean mountains and Pleistocene glacial cycles are responsible for much of the unique biodiversity of the Western Palearctic, acting respectively as refugia and drivers of diversification. Mount Olympus, a legendary Greek landmark, is a perfect example. This massif provided a glacial refugium for many species, resulting in a unique biota. In the present contribution, a new euscorpiid scorpion with a distinctive morphology, Euscorpius olympus, sp. nov., is described from an isolated population in the foothills of Mount Olympus. This new species raises the number of species in the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876, to 74, in Greece to 32, and in the vicinity of Mount Olympus, to three. The roles of climatic oscillations, altitudinal gradients and habitat heterogeneity on the diversity and distributions of the three species occurring around Mount Olympus are briefly discussed. ItemHigh resolution images for 'Cheliceral morphology in Solifugae (Arachnida) : primary homology, terminology, and character survey. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 394)'(2015-06-22) Bird, Tharina.; Wharton, Robert (Robert Alan); Prendini, Lorenzo.High resolution images for 'Cheliceral morphology in Solifugae (Arachnida) : primary homology, terminology, and character survey. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 394)' - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/6592 ItemHigh resolution images for 'Systematic revision of the North American syntropine vaejovid scorpion genera Maaykuyak, Syntropis, and Vizcaino, with description of the adults of Syntropis williamsi. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 405)'(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-06-24) González-Santillán, Edmundo.; Prendini, Lorenzo.High resolution images for 'Systematic revision of the North American syntropine vaejovid scorpion genera Maaykuyak, Syntropis, and Vizcaino, with description of the adults of Syntropis williamsi. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 405)' - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/6662 ItemKolotl, n. gen. (Scorpiones, Diplocentridae), a new scorpion genus from Mexico. (American Museum novitates, no. 3815)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-10-16) Santibáñez-López, Carlos E.; Francke, Oscar F.; Prendini, Lorenzo.The monophyly and phylogenetic position of Diplocentrus Peters, 1861, has remained ambiguous since the first published phylogenetic analysis of diplocentrid relationships, in which it was rendered paraphyletic by the placement of exemplar species from two other diplocentrid genera, Bioculus Stahnke, 1968, and Didymocentrus Kraepelin, 1905. The discovery of two diplocentrids with neobothriotaxic pedipalps, Diplocentrus magnus Beutelspacher and López-Forment, 1991, and Diplocentrus poncei Francke and Quijano-Ravell, 2009, from the central Mexican states of Guerrero and Michoacán, respectively, raised further questions about the limits of Diplocentrus. A recent phylogenetic analysis of 29 species of Diplocentrus and five exemplar species of the most closely related genera, based on 95 morphological characters and 4202 aligned nucleotides from DNA sequences of five markers in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, recovered the monophyly of Diplocentrus, excepting two neobothriotaxic species from central Mexico, justifying their removal from Diplocentrus. In the present contribution, Kolotl, n. gen. is created to accommodate the two species, Kolotl magnus (Beutelspacher and López-Forment, 1991), n. comb., and Kolotl poncei (Francke and Quijano-Ravell, 2009), n. comb., and both are redescribed. ItemMyrmecicultoridae, a new family of myrmecophilic spiders from the Chihuahuan Desert (Araneae, Entelegynae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3930)(American Museum of Natural History., 2019-06-26) Ramírez, Martín J.; Grismado, Cristian J.; Ubick, Darrell.; Ovcharenko, V. I.; Cushing, Paula Elizabeth, 1964-; Platnick, Norman I.; Wheeler, Ward.; Prendini, Lorenzo.; Crowley, Louise M.; Horner, Norman V.The new genus and species Myrmecicultor chihuahuensis Ramírez, Grismado, and Ubick is described and proposed as the type of the new family, Myrmecicultoridae Ramírez, Grismado, and Ubick. The species is ecribellate, with entelegyne genitalia, two tarsal claws, without claw tufts, and the males have a retrolateral palpal tibial apophysis. Some morphological characters suggest a possible relationship with Zodariidae or Prodidomidae, but the phylogenetic analysis of six markers from the mitochondrial (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and nuclear (histone H3, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA) genomes indicate that M. chihuahuensis is a separate lineage emerging near the base of the Dionycha and the Oval Calamistrum clade. The same result is obtained when the molecular data are combined with a dataset of morphological characters. Specimens of M. chihuahuensis were found associated with three species of harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex rugosus, Novomessor albisetosis, and Novomessor cockerelli, and were collected in pitfall traps when the ants are most active. The known distribution spans the Big Bend region of Texas (Presidio, Brewster, and Hudspeth counties), to Coahuila (Cuatro Ciénegas) and Aguascalientes (Tepezalá), Mexico. ItemNew data on Chilean Urophonius Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae), with description of a new species. (American Museum novitates, no. 3725)(American Museum of Natural History., 2011-10-28) Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A.; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime.; Prendini, Lorenzo.New data are provided on Chilean species of the bothriurid genus Urophonius Pocock, 1893. Urophonius mondacai, n. sp., from central Chile is described. Urophonius tumbensis Cekalovic, 1981, is redescribed according to modern standards, and information about its distribution and ecology provided. Urophonius transandinus Acosta, 1998, is redescribed, its known distribution enlarged, and data on the morphological variation among its populations provided. A modification to Maury's (1973) group division of the genus is presented. Urophonius is divided into two groups instead of three as proposed by Acosta (1988). A distribution map for the three species covered in this contribution is provided, together with a key to the Chilean species of the genus. ItemNew records and observations on the natural history of Lisposoma elegans and L. josehermana (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae). American Museum novitates ; no. 3487(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2005) Prendini, Lorenzo.The endemic Namibian scorpion genus Lisposoma Lawrence, 1928 is a basal African lineage of the Gondwanan family Bothriuridae Simon, 1880. The natural history of Lisposoma remains poorly known. This contribution provides new records and observations on the natural history of Lisposoma elegans Lawrence, 1928 and Lisposoma josehermana Lamoral, 1979, based on recent fieldwork in Namibia. ItemA new species of Urodacus (Scorpiones, Urodacidae) from Western Australia. (American Museum novitates, no. 3748)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-06-25) Volschenk, Erich S.; Harvey, Mark S.; Prendini, Lorenzo.A new urodacid scorpion, Urodacus butleri, n. sp., is described from Barrow Island and the Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia. This species is unusually dark in color; it is compared and contrasted with three morphologically similar species, Urodacus manicatus (Thorell, 1876), Urodacus novaehollandiae Peters, 1861, and Urodacus planimanus Pocock, 1893. ItemOn the African whip scorpion, Etienneus africanus (Hentschel, 1899) (Thelyphonida, Thelyphonidae), with a redescription based on new material from Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. (American Museum novitates, no. 3658)(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History., 2009) Huff, Jeremy C.; Prendini, Lorenzo.;An illustrated redescription of the monotypic African whip scorpion, Etienneus africanus (Hentschel, 1899), is provided based on examination of material newly collected in Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, as well as material from the Gambia, Guinea and Senegal studied by previous workers. The species is reported for the first time from Guinea-Bissau. Several character systems are documented in this species for the first time, new characters that appear to be autapomorphic are described, and notes on its natural history provided. The phylogenetic position of E. africanus is discussed, supporting the opinion that it is a Gondwana relict, most closely related to the Neotropical hypoctonine genera, Thelyphonellus Pocock, 1894 and Ravilops Viquez and Armas, 2005. ItemOn the troglomorphic scorpion Troglotayosicus humiculum (Scorpiones, Troglotayosicidae) with first description of the adults. (American Museum novitates, no. 3691)(American Museum of Natural History., 2010) Ochoa, J. A. (José A.); Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo.; Prendini, Lorenzo.The endemic Colombian troglomorphic scorpion, Troglotayosicus humiculum Botero-Trujillo and Francke, 2009, previously known only from the juvenile holotype, is redescribed based on newly collected adults of both sexes. New data on basitarsal spination, telotarsal setation, and carination of the metasoma and pedipalps, together with the first description of the hemispermatophore and a revised interpretation of the trichobothria, are provided, along with brief discussions of the ecology and distribution of the species. ItemRedefinition and generic revision of the North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, with descriptions of six new genera. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 382)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-12-02) González-Santillán, Edmundo.; Prendini, Lorenzo.The endemic North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, is redefined and its component genera revised, based on a simultaneous phylogenetic analysis of 250 morphological characters and 4221 aligned DNA nucleotides from three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene markers. Tribe Stahnkeini Soleglad and Fet, 2006, is removed from Syntropinae. Tribe Paravaejovini Soleglad and Fet, 2008, and subtribe Thorelliina Soleglad and Fet, 2008, are abolished: Paravaejovini Soleglad and Fet, 2008 = Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, syn. nov.; Thorelliina Soleglad and Fet, 2008 = Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, syn. nov. Eleven genera, six newly described, are recognized within Syntropinae: Balsateres, gen. nov.; Chihuahuanus, gen. nov.; Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008; Konetontli, gen. nov.; Kuarapu Francke and Ponce-Saavedra, 2010; Maaykuyak, gen. nov.; Mesomexovis, gen. nov.; Paravaejovis Williams, 1980; Syntropis Kraepelin, 1900; Thorellius Soleglad and Fet, 2008; Vizcaino, gen. nov. Hoffmannius Soleglad and Fet, 2008, is abolished: Hoffmannius Soleglad and Fet, 2008 = Paravaejovis Williams, 1980, syn. nov. Lissovaejovis Ponce-Saavedra and Beutelspacher, 2001 [nomen nudum] = Paravaejovis Williams, 1980, syn. nov. Ten species, formerly placed in Hoffmannius, are transferred to Paravaejovis: Paravaejovis confusus (Stahnke, 1940), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis diazi (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis eusthenura (Wood, 1863), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis flavus (Banks, 1900), comb. nov. [nomen dubium]; Paravaejovis galbus (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis gravicaudus (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis hoffmanni (Williams, 1970), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis puritanus (Gertsch, 1958), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis spinigerus (Wood, 1863), comb. nov.; Paravaejovis waeringi (Williams, 1970), comb. nov. Paravaejovis schwenkmeyeri (Williams, 1970), comb. nov., is removed from synonymy. Four species, formerly placed in Kochius, are transferred to Chihuahuanus, gen. nov.: Chihuahuanus cazieri (Williams, 1968), comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus crassimanus (Pocock, 1898), comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus kovariki (Soleglad and Fet, 2008), comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus russelli (Williams, 1971), comb. nov. Four species, formerly placed in Kochius, Thorellius, or Vaejovis C.L. Koch, 1836, are transferred to Mesomexovis, gen. nov.: Mesomexovis atenango (Francke and González-Santillán, 2007), comb. nov.; Mesomexovis oaxaca (Santibáñez-López and Sissom, 2010), comb. nov.; Mesomexovis occidentalis (Hoffmann, 1931), comb. nov.; Mesomexovis subcristatus (Pocock, 1898), comb. nov. Mesomexovis variegatus (Pocock, 1898), comb. nov., is reinstated to its original rank as species. Four subspecies are newly elevated to species: Kochius barbatus (Williams, 1971), stat. nov.; Kochius cerralvensis (Williams, 1971), stat. nov.; Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971), stat. nov.; Mesomexovis spadix (Hoffmann, 1931), comb. et stat. nov. Three subspecies are synonymized: Vaejovis diazi transmontanus Williams, 1970 = Paravaejovis diazi (Williams, 1970), syn. nov.; Vaejovis bruneus loretoensis Williams, 1971 = Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971), syn. nov.; Vaejovis hoffmanni fuscus Williams, 1970 = Paravaejovis hoffmanni (Williams, 1970), syn. nov. ItemRedefinition and systematic revision of the East African scorpion genus Pandinoides (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae) with critique of the taxonomy of Pandinus, sensu lato. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 407)(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-09-21) Prendini, Lorenzo.The scorpion fauna of East Africa, encompassing Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, is more diverse than those of West and Central Africa, but a systematic survey has never been conducted and the distributions of its species remain poorly understood. A recent opportunity to examine two extensive collections of East African, and predominantly Kenyan, scorpions and new material acquired by the author permitted a reassessment of the fauna of the region. The present contribution, the first of several emanating from this research, comprises two parts. The first part presents a redefinition and revision of the scorpionid genus Pandinoides Fet, 1997, with a redescription of the type species, Pandinoides cavimanus (Pocock, 1888), a revalidation and redescription of Pandinoides militaris (Pocock, 1900), and a description of Pandinoides duffmackayi, sp. nov. Pending reassessment of the genera and subgenera of Pandinus, sensu lato, based on quantitative phylogenetic analysis, Pandinoides is restricted to the three species with a marked concave depression in the retrodorsal surface of the pedipalp chela manus of the adult male, and Pandinus platycheles Werner, 1916, transferred to Pandinus subgenus Pandinoriens Rossi, 2015, creating a new combination: Pandinus (Pandinoriens) platycheles (Werner, 1916), comb. nov. The availability of large series comprising both sexes and all stages of the three Pandinoides species covered herein revealed considerable variation in counts of pedipalp trichobothria, spiniform macrosetae of the leg telotarsi, and pectinal teeth, among and even within individual conspecifics, calling into question the widespread practice of defining species and supraspecific taxa almost exclusively on trivial meristic differences between small samples of material (often singletons, female or immature). Furthermore, whereas neobothriotaxic patterns with low counts may provide appropriate diagnostic characters for genera and species, in combination with other characters, this is generally inadvisable when trichobothrial counts are high, due to the greater instability of the patterns. The second part of this contribution assesses the validity of several putative species of Pandinus, sensu lato, recently described or revalidated, in light of data presented in the first part, and presents 10 new synonyms: Heterometrus roeseli Simon, 1872 = Pandinus (P.) imperator (C.L. Koch, 1841), syn. nov.; Pandinus (P.) camerounensis Lourenço, 2014 = Pandinus (P.) imperator (C.L. Koch, 1841), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (P.) prendinii Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (P.) sudanicus (Hirst, 1911), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandicaporiaccous) Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandiborellius) Rossi, 2015, syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandicaporiaccous) janae Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandiborellius) percivali (Pocock, 1902), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) bartolozii Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) viatoris (Pocock, 1890), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) flagellicauda Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) viatoris (Pocock, 1890), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) lorenzoi Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) viatoris (Pocock, 1890), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) pantinii Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) viatoris (Pocock, 1890), syn. nov.; Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) pygmaeus Rossi, 2015 = Pandinurus (Pandipalpus) viatoris (Pocock, 1890), syn. nov. ItemRedescription of Heterometrus latimanus and confirmation of the genus Heterometrus (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae) in Pakistan. (American Museum novitates, ; no. 3805)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-06-24) Tahir, H. Muhammad (Hafiz Muhammad), 1980-; Prendini, Lorenzo.Scorpions of the genus Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, are distributed from India and Sri Lanka throughout the Southeast Asian mainland and archipelagos as far as Wallace's Line. Despite this widespread distribution, Heterometrus was not recorded from Pakistan until a single specimen from Azad Kashmir was reported from the collection of the Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad. Perhaps because the specimen was misidentified as Heterometrus wroughtoni (Pocock, 1899), a species that occurs much farther to the southeast in India, the presence of Heterometrus in Pakistan remained uncertain until fresh material of a distinctive species of Heterometrus was recently collected at several locations in Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa. After comparison of the material with the holotype and only known specimen of a little-known species, Heterometrus latimanus (Pocock, 1894), with an indefinite type locality in "India," the Pakistani material was determined to be conspecific. In the present contribution, H. latimanus is redescribed based on adult males and females from several localities, and the specimen from Azad Kashmir tentatively assigned to it, confirming the presence of Heterometrus in Pakistan. The new locality records extend the distribution of the genus considerably to the northwest, and west of the Indus River for the first time. The known records of H. latimanus appear to be isolated from other Heterometrus occurring on the Indian subcontinent by the Great Indian (Thar) Desert, an arid, sandy basin extending from eastern Pakistan to northwestern India.