Pointing the way : the distribution and evolution of some characters of the finger muscles of frogs. American Museum novitates ; no. 3229

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New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History
"The mm. transversi I and II of the hands of frogs have apparently shifted during the course of history from positions dorsal to the mm. flexores teretes III and IV to ventral positions- in the ancestor of Pipidae; and in the ancestor of a clade in Neobatrachia comprising Allophryne ruthveni, Brachycephalidae, Bufonidae, Centrolenidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Pseudidae, Ranoidea, and Rhinoderma darwini, and excluding Heleophryne, Myobatrachidae, and Sooglossidae. Unique conditions of the m. transversus-m. flexor teres complex characterize Centrolenidae, Microhylidae, and a group of ranid frogs. The superficial flexors of the third finger are consistent in many families, but vary more than the deep muscles. There is an overall trend toward movement of the origins of the flexors from the palmar aponeurosis to the carpals. A hitherto undescribed muscle, the m. lumbricalis longus digiti III, occurs in Batrachophrynus, Calyptocephalellini, Heleophrynidae, Lynchophrys, and Petropedetes. Shared conditions in the superficial flexors support the monophyly of Myobatrachidae, hylodine origin of the Dendrobatidae, and placement of Batrachophrynus and Lynchophrys in Calyptocephalellini"--P. [1].
13 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 8-9).