ItemEx vivo three-dimensional reconstruction of Acutiramus : a giant pterygotid sea scorpion (American Museum novitates, no. 4004)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-11-20) Bicknell, Russell D. C.; Kenny, Katrina; Plotnick, Roy E.Pterygotid eurypterids include some of the largest aquatic arthropods in the fossil record and are known from middle Silurian to Middle Devonian deposits across the globe. These forms primarily preserve as mostly two-dimensional impressions, a situation that has impacted the accurate reconstruction of pterygotid ventral structures and organization. By documenting specimens displaying important dorsal and ventral structures from both Acutiramus—a larger, well-documented pterygotid genus—and other pterygotids, we reconstruct Acutiramus in three-dimensions (3D) to more thoroughly understand the functional morphology and limb arrangement of these large eurypterids. With this comprehensive 3D reconstruction, we demonstrate a much more anterior insertion of appendages II–V, a near-horizontal orientation of appendages II–VI coxae, the presence of reduced appendage II, and a labrum and epistomel region. The labrum and epistomel sections are identified as the locality for cheliceral articulation. This model also uncovers the streamlined nature and low-profile morphology of Acutiramus. We use our model to explore the morphofunctionality of pterygotid eurypterids, including their feeding strategies, addressing a conundrum inherent in previous pterygotid reconstructions. ItemGlacial relicts? A new scorpion from Mount Olympus, Greece (Euscorpiidae: Euscorpius) (American Museum novitates, no. 4003)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-11-09) Blasco-Aróstegui, Javier.; Prendini, Lorenzo.Mediterranean mountains and Pleistocene glacial cycles are responsible for much of the unique biodiversity of the Western Palearctic, acting respectively as refugia and drivers of diversification. Mount Olympus, a legendary Greek landmark, is a perfect example. This massif provided a glacial refugium for many species, resulting in a unique biota. In the present contribution, a new euscorpiid scorpion with a distinctive morphology, Euscorpius olympus, sp. nov., is described from an isolated population in the foothills of Mount Olympus. This new species raises the number of species in the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876, to 74, in Greece to 32, and in the vicinity of Mount Olympus, to three. The roles of climatic oscillations, altitudinal gradients and habitat heterogeneity on the diversity and distributions of the three species occurring around Mount Olympus are briefly discussed. ItemAncistrocerus capra (de Saussure, 1857), a valid species, not a synonym of A. antilope (Panzer, 1798) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) (American Museum novitates, no. 4002)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-10-19) Fateryga, A. V. (Alexander V.), 1984-; Carpenter, James M. (James Michael), 1956-; Fateryga, Valentina V.Ancistrocerus capra was described by de Saussure in 1857 from North America and then was synonymized with the Palaearctic A. antilope (Panzer, 1798) by Bequaert in 1944. Although these species share a combination of two characters (impunctate and shining metapleuron and lateral surface of the propodeum and a bifurcate apex of the aedeagus) not known in other species of Ancistrocerus, they are clearly different in the structure of the clypeus (especially in the male) and the male genitalia (structure of the volsella, general shape of the aedeagus, and the structure of its ventral lobe). Thus, A. capra is again recognized as a distinct species in the present contribution. This species is distributed in the United States and Canada while A. antilope has a trans-Palaearctic distribution. Two subspecies of A. antilope known from North America are synonymized with A. capra: A. antilope navajo Bequaert, 1925 (new synonymy), and A. antilope allegrus Bequaert, 1944 (new synonymy); the taxonomic status of A. capra spenceri Bequaert, 1944, remains unclear. Bionomics of A. antilope and A. capra are similar; particularly, these species share an association with apparently the same species of symbiotic mites, Kennethiella trisetosa (Cooreman, 1942) (Sarcoptiformes: Winterschmidtiidae), and an unusual mating behavior correlated with this association (first of all, several copulations per pair). A difference, however, exists in the number of generations per year and the sex ratio: A. antilope has a single (overwintering) generation with a female-biased sex ratio while A. capra has an overwintering generation with a male-biased sex ratio and a summer one with a female-biased sex ratio. ItemOn the taxonomic identity of Sturnira nana Gardner and O’Neil, 1971 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), from Ecuador, with the description of a new species of Sturnira (American Museum novitates, no. 4001)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-10-17) Yánez-Fernández, Viviana; Marchán-Rivadeneira, M. Raquel; Velazco, Paúl M.; Burneo, Santiago F.; Tinoco, Nicolás; Camacho, M. AlejandraThe lesser yellow-shouldered bat, Sturnira nana, is a member of the most diverse genus of the New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). This species was considered endemic to Peru until 2009 when researchers captured a series of individuals in the Cordillera del Cóndor of southeastern Ecuador and identified them as S. nana. To assess the taxonomic status of this Ecuadorian population in relation to S. nana from Peru, we analyzed cytochrome b gene sequences and craniodental measurement data. In addition, we used principal component analysis to elucidate differences in climatic niches. Our analyses suggest that populations currently identified as S. nana from Ecuador and Peru are genetically, morphologically, and ecologically divergent. Herein, we formally describe the population of small Sturnira from Ecuador as a new species. ItemSystematic revision of the whip spider family Paracharontidae (Arachnida: Amblypygi) with description of a new troglobitic genus and species from Colombia (American Museum novitates, no. 4000)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-06-28) Moreno-González, Jairo A.; Gutierrez Estrada, Miguel; Prendini, LorenzoThe ancient, enigmatic whip spider family Paracharontidae Weygoldt, 1996, representing the basalmost lineage of the arachnid order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883, is revised. The monotypic West African genus Paracharon Hansen, 1921, from Guinea Bissau, is redescribed, based on a reexamination and reinterpretation of the newly designated lectotype. A new troglobitic whip spider, Jorottui ipuanai, gen. et sp. nov., is described from a cave system in the upper basin of the Camarones River in the La Guajira Department of northeastern Colombia. This new taxon is the second extant representative of Paracharontidae and the first outside Africa. It is unambiguously assigned to the family based on several characters shared with Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921, notably a projection of the anterior carapace margin, the tritosternum not projecting anteriorly, similar pedipalp spination, a reduced number of trichobothria on the tibia of leg IV, and cushionlike female gonopods. A detailed examination confirmed the absence of ocelli in both genera and the presence of three (Paracharon) vs. four (Jorottui, gen. nov.) prolateral teeth on the basal segment of the chelicera, the dorsalmost tooth bicuspid in both genera. The male gonopods of Paracharontidae are described for the first time. Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel and Grimaldi, 2014, is removed from Paracharontidae and placed incertae sedis in Euamblypygi Weygoldt, 1996; amended, comparative diagnoses are presented for Paracharontidae and Paracharon; and previous interpretations of various diagnostic characters for Paracharontidae are discussed. ItemDescription of two new Labeo (Labeoninae; Cyprinidae) endemic to the Lulua River in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Kasai ecoregion) : a hotspot of fish diversity in the Congo basin (American Museum novitates, no. 3999)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-05-18) Liyandja, Tobit L. D.; Stiassny, Melanie L. J.Labeo mbimbii, n. sp., and Labeo manasseeae, n. sp., two small-bodied Labeo species, are described from the lower and middle reaches of the Lulua River (Kasai ecoregion, Congo basin) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The two new species are members of the L. forskalii species group and are genetically distinct from all other species of that clade. Morphologically they can be distinguished from central African L. forskalii group congeners except L. dhonti, L. lukulae, L. luluae, L. parvus, L. quadribarbis, and L. simpsoni in the possession of 29 or fewer (vs. 30 or more) vertebrae and from those congeners by a wider interpectoral, among other features. The two new species are endemic to the Lulua River and, although overlapping in geographical range and most meristic and morphometric measures, are readily differentiated by differing numbers of fully developed supraneural bones, predorsal vertebrae, snout morphology, and additional osteological features. The description of these two species brings the total of Labeo species endemic to the Lulua basin to three. The third endemic species, L. luluae, was previously known only from the juvenile holotype, but numerous additional specimens have now been identified. The cooccurrence of 14 Labeo species in the Lulua River, three of which are endemic, highlights this system as a hotspot of Labeo diversity in the Congo basin and across the continent. ItemNew discovery of rhyncholites and conchorhynchs (cephalopod jaw elements) from the Upper Cretaceous Mount Laurel Formation of Delaware (American Museum novitates, no. 3998)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-05-10) Tajika, Amane; Anderson, Lian; Ikuno, Kenji; Landman, Neil H.; Koyasu, HiromichiRhyncholites and Conchorhynchs are the calcitic elements of upper and lower jaws of cephalopods, respectively. Rhyncholites and conchorhynchs occur in relatively high abundance and are widely distributed, with a long geological range, extending from the Triassic to the Miocene. While rhyncholites and conchorhynchs are relatively common in Europe, there are only a few reports from North America. Here, we document 24 specimens of rhyncholites and 12 specimens of conchorhynchs from the Upper Cretaceous Mount Laurel Formation in Delaware. The specimens were found in isolation and, thus, identifying the taxon to which the rhyncholites and conchorhynchs belong is difficult. However, the Cretaceous nautilid Eutrephoceras occurs in the same formation, suggesting that the rhyncholites and conchorhynchs may belong to this taxon. We performed a morphometric analysis of these structures based on linear measurements. Our results reveal that some morphological parameters in rhyncholites are correlated with size. Additionally, our specimens exhibit high intraspecific variation, which may have been overlooked in previous studies. ItemExceptional species diversity of Drosophilidae (Diptera) in a neotropical forest (American Museum novitates, no. 3997)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-05-10) Grimaldi, David A.; Richenbacher, CourtneyThe highest single-site species diversity known thus far in the world for Drosophilidae is in Costa Rica, based on findings in this report. A total of 352 species of Drosophilidae (Diptera) were found in a cloud forest (1580 m) in Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province (hereafter “Zurquí”), based on 2908 specimens collected continuously for one year, using eight trapping and collecting methods. There are currently 305 described species from Costa Rica. Zurquí is at the edge of a large, protected area and was the site of an All-Diptera inventory project. For this study, drosophilid specimens were identified to genus/subgenus, sorted to morphospecies, and their abundances plotted by collection method: Malaise traps, flight intercept traps, baited traps, light and yellow pan traps, emergence traps, and hand collecting with nets. The standard method used by drosophilists, bait trapping, captured a small fraction of species. Malaise traps captured 87% of all species, and 41% of the 352 species were captured only this way. Emergence traps captured a surprising diversity (47 species) of Diathoneura and Drosophila, establishing that leaf litter/humus is an important breeding site for some taxa. Combining all collection methods, 11 species were abundant, as defined by 50 or more specimens, and comprised 35% of all specimens in the study; two-thirds (66%) of all species were rare, as defined by five or fewer specimens. Comparisons are made to other well-collected sites and regions around the world. Lowland to mid-montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes may be the most diverse area for Drosophilidae, a family that is exemplary for studying the ecology and evolution of tropical diversity. ItemNew fossil giant panda relatives (Ailuropodinae, Ursidae) : a basal lineage of gigantic Mio-Pliocene cursorial carnivores (American Museum novitates, no. 3996)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-03-14) Jiangzhou, Qigao; Flynn, John J. (John Joseph), 1955-; Wang, Shiqi (Paleontologist); Hou, Sukuan; Deng, Tao (Paleontologist)Among the fossil members of the giant panda subfamily of ursid carnivorans, Ailuropodinae, one group of species is of giant size, those of Indarctos. Indarctos species have some dental resemblances to and may be closely related to Agriotherium, although there are other clear differences between these taxa, and no known species has definitive shared derived traits that could link these two genera. Here we describe a rich suite of fossil material from both North America and eastern Asia, all belonging to a new genus, Huracan, which possesses characters shared with both Agriotherium and Indarctos but also has diagnostic autapomorphies. The new taxon was distributed widely in the Holarctic during the latest Miocene, including at least four species: the type species Huracan schneideri (previously Agriotherium schneideri) from the latest Hemphillian (Hh4) and possibly early Blancan North American Land Mammal “Ages” (NALMAs), North America; H. coffeyi from the early Late Hemphillian (Hh3) NALMA, North America; H. qiui, sp. nov., from the Baodean Asian Land Mammal “Age” (ALMA), northern China; and H. roblesi from the MN13 zone (latest Miocene–earliest Pliocene) of Spain. Huracan is the nearest sister taxon to Agriotherium, the latter herein considered to be an ailuropodine (in the tribe Agriotheriini) rather than a hemicyonid, and the common ancestor of both genera evolved from Indarctos (with resultant paraphyly of that taxon) or another Indarctos-like ailuropodine bear, likely in eastern Asia. The dentitions of Huracan and Agriotherium both are more specialised for carnivory than most Indarctos species, indicating a radiation of diverse ecological carnivores earlier in the history of the later-diverging, highly specialized herbivores in the giant panda lineage. Their postcranial morphology suggests that species in both genera (Huracan and Agriotherium) were more cursorial than species assigned to Indarctos, and thus well adapted to more open habitats. These derived traits may explain the worldwide replacement of Indarctos species by Huracan and Agriotherium species during the latest Miocene, in response to significant global cooling and expansion of C4 grasslands that occurred at that time. ItemA key to the Pacific genera of Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3995)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-03-01) Carpenter, James M. (James Michael), 1956-A key to the genera of the Eumeninae occurring in Oceania is presented. Hitherto there has been no published key to these genera, making routine identification difficult. New combinations are Pararrhynchium atrum emifasciatum (Giordani Soika), Pararrhynchium simillimum (Giordani Soika), Parodynerus mariannensis (Bequaert and Yasumatsu), and Phimenes solomonis malaitensis (van der Vecht). ItemRevision of the North American Hallodapini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3994)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-02-17) Wyniger, Denise; Schuh, Randall T.; Henry, Thomas J.The North American Hallodapini are revised. Cyrtopeltocoris Reuter includes 12 species, five of which (C. brailovskyi, n. sp., C. fractifasciatus, n. sp., C. hallodapoides, n. sp., C. nudipronotum, n. sp., and C. pronotosus, n. sp.) are described as new. Five nominal species of Cyrtopeltocoris and three commingled species of Sericophanes Reuter are placed in synonymy, and a neotype is designated for C. mexicanus Carvalho and Costa. Phoradendrepulus Polhemus and Polhemus, described based on brachypterous males and females, is synonymized under Cyrtopeltocoris, new synonymy, and P. myrmecomorphus Polhemus and Polhemus is synonymized under C. ajo Knight. The new genus Neocyrtopeltocoris, described to include Sericophanes triangularis Knight (with Sericophanes albomaculatus Knight, S. fuscicornis Knight, and S. nevadensis Knight treated as junior synonyms) and N. froeschneri, n. sp., is placed in the Hallodapini. We provide habitus images, illustrations, measurements, and distribution maps for all taxa; genitalic illustrations for most taxa; and a key to the species of Cyrtopeltocoris and Neocyrtopeltocoris to aid in identification. ItemBundles of sperm : structural diversity in scorpion sperm packages illuminates evolution of insemination in an ancient lineage (American Museum novitates, no. 3993)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-12-13) Vrech, David E.; Peretti, Alfredo V.; Prendini, Lorenzo; Mattoni, Camilo I.The spermatozoa of scorpions are often bundled together, forming a type of sperm conjugation known as a sperm package. Sperm packages may be found inside the testes and seminal vesicles but vanish in the female atrium, leaving free spermatozoa. Previous studies, based on a limited number of taxa, suggested a diversity of sperm package morphology across the order Scorpiones C.L. Koch, 1850. However, the sperm packages of most scorpion taxa remained unknown. The present study provides the first systematic survey of sperm package morphology across the order, covering 89 exemplar species in 66 genera and 19 families representing all suprafamilial ranks, with a more detailed investigation of the family Bothriuridae Simon, 1880. Whereas all exemplar species of scorpions exhibit sperm packages, Buthida Soleglad and Fet, 2003, including Chaerilidae Pocock, 1893, and most Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837, present unorganized sperm or loosely organized bundles. Although the details vary, three main types of sperm packages may be recognized in all other families: single folded; straight; and multiple folded. Subtypes may be identified according to general shape and folding patterns, mainly among sperm packages that are folded multiple times. Single-folded sperm packages are the most common type observed in the order. Although most sperm packages lack a covering, a conspicuous secretion sheath may be evident, e.g., in some Chactidae Pocock, 1893. Sperm packages vary in length from 112–354 μm and bent sperm packages are not necessarily longer than straight sperm packages. Four exemplar species of Bothriuridae reveal that variation in sperm count within a single sperm package is consistent with the count derived in spermatogenesis. The diversity of sperm packages suggests a path from free spermatozoa, via bent sperm packages, to other forms. Sperm packages may aid in the transport, cooperation, competition, and survival of spermatozoa. The diverse morphology, function, and evolution of sperm packages merit further investigation. ItemSystematic review and cranial osteology of Petersius with redescription of P. conserialis (Teleostei: Alestidae) from the Rufiji and Ruvu rivers of Tanzania (American Museum novitates, no. 3992)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-11-15) Melo, Bruno F. 1987-; Stiassny, Melanie L. J.We review the systematics of the monotypic alestid genus Petersius and provide a taxonomic redescription of P. conserialis from eastern Tanzania. Morphological investigation includes direct observation and examination of radiographed and μCT-scanned data from type and non-type specimens. We delimit the taxon’s geographic distribution along the lowland regions of the Rufiji and Ruvu river basins in Tanzania and provide information on ecology, sexual dimorphism, and ontogenetic variation. Petersius is herein diagnosed by the possession of a unique cuspidation patterning of the inner-row premaxillary dentition and a distinctively shaped anterodorsal margin of the supraoccipital crest. It shares with some species of Phenacogrammusa sigmoid-shaped process on the dorsal margin of the second infraorbital, a feature lacking in other alestid taxa. Additional features of potential utility for ongoing investigation of relationships among alestid genera include the possession of contralateral premaxillae separated by the anteromedial process of the mesethmoid and without interdigitations connecting the medial surfaces of the premaxillae; four, occasionally five or six, small outer-row premaxillary teeth implanted alternately with those of the inner row; a dentary lacking a pair of conical inner-row teeth proximal to the symphysis; a dorsal posttemporal fossa that is smaller than the ventral fossa; a median third posttemporal fossa located entirely within the epioccipital; a truncate dorsomedial cranial fontanel; and a complete circumorbital series forming an uninterrupted ring around the orbit in adult specimens. ItemA new genus with two new species of Colombian harvestmen (Opiliones: Stygnidae: Stygninae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3991)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-09-16) Villarreal Manzanilla, Osvaldo; Kury, Adriano B.; Colmenares, Pío A.Fortia, gen. nov., a new genus of Stygnidae with two new Colombian species, is diagnosed and described. Two possibly sympatric species Fortia jedi, sp. nov., and Fortia sith, sp. nov. (both from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia), are described and illustrated. Relationships of the new genus are discussed. ItemA new species of air-breathing catfish (Clariidae: Clarias) from Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo (American Museum novitates, no. 3990)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-08-30) Bernt, Maxwell J.; Stiassny, Melanie L. J.A new species of air-breathing catfish, Clarias monsembulai, is described from Congo River tributaries within and bordering the Salonga National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The new taxon is recognized by its exceptionally long, white barbels, which lend a superficial resemblance to Clarias buthupogon, from which it differs in characters of the cleithrum and pigmentation patterning. We suggest placement of this species into the subgenus Clarioides but note the current dearth of morphological data to unite members of this group. We additionally discuss the validity of the subspecies Clarias angolensis macronema. ItemDescriptions of the mature larvae of three Australian ground-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Diphaglossinae and Neopasiphaeinae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3989)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-06-28) Rozen, Jerome G., Jr. (Jerome George), 1928-; Houston, T. F. (Terry F.)Fully fed larvae of three Australian bee species formerly classified as Colletidae: Paracolletini are described and compared in light of recent phylogenetic studies. Two of these species, Leioproctus (Goniocolletes) wanni (Leijs and Hogendoorn) and Trichocolletes orientalis Batley and Houston, belong in the Neopasiphaeinae, while the third, Paracolletes crassipes Smith, belongs in Diphaglossinae: Paracolletini (sensu Almeida et al., 2019). We find that larval characters support the separation of Paracolletes from the neopasiphaeines, in particular the spoutlike salivary gland opening associated with cocoon spinning. In addition, we suggest that nest architecture of P. crassipes includes a feature that prevents flooding of open brood cells, a feature common to a number of other large ground-nesting bees. ItemThe Drosophila funebris species group in North America (Diptera: Drosophilidae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3988)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-04-07) Grimaldi, David A.Although the global human commensal Drosophila funebris (Fabricius) is well known and is the type species of the genus Drosophila Fallén, the four native North American species of the funebris group have been poorly defined morphologically. D. macrospina limpiensis Patterson and Wheeler is newly recognized as a species distinct from D. macrospina, with diagnostic morphological characters provided. The subspecies D. macrospina ohioensis Stalker is synonymized under D. macrospina. Species native to the Palearctic and to the Nearctic are morphologically distinct, each probably a monophyletic group. Detailed descriptions and redescriptions are provided for both sexes of D. macrospina Stalker and Spencer, D. limpiensis Patterson and Wheeler, D. subfunebris Stalker and Spencer, and D. trispina Wheeler, the latter two being very rare species from southern California. Neotypes are designated for D. macrospina and D. subfunebris. A key to the five Nearctic species of the funebris group is provided. ItemThe itineraries of Alfred Crossley, and natural history collecting in mid-nineteenth century Madagascar (American Museum novitates, no. 3987)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-04-04) Tattersall, IanAlfred Crossley was one of the most prolific collectors of natural history specimens in Madagascar during the 19th century, with several vertebrate species named for him and numerous vertebrate and invertebrate holotypes to his credit. Yet the details of his life, and even of his professional activities, have been almost completely lost to history. Here I assemble what is known of Crossley’s Madagascar itineraries in the years between 1869 and 1877, with the aim of providing a basis for more precisely pinpointing his many collecting localities. With the aid of a newly rediscovered obituary and contemporary press extracts, I also outline the details of a productive and drama-filled life that began with shipwreck and captivity in Madagascar and ended in a lonely death there, possibly under dubious circumstances. I also seek to understand why Crossley attracted so little attention while doing such visible and significant work, concluding that this lack of recognition was due partly to humble social origins in an era of gentlemen scientists and partly to an exceedingly retiring personal disposition. ItemNew diminutive Eocene lizard reveals high K-Pg survivorship and taxonomic diversity of stem xenosaurs in North America (American Museum novitates, no. 3986)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-02-16) Smith, Krister T.; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Bloch, Jonathan I.We describe a new diminutive early Eocene lizard, Blutwurstia oliviae, gen. et sp. nov., on the basis of associated cranial and postcranial remains from the Clarks Fork Basin of Wyoming. Results from phylogenetic analyses suggest that B. oliviae is on the stem of knob-scaled lizards (Xenosaurus), a relict extant clade of specialized, stenotopic crevice-dwellers from Mexico and Central America. Results further suggest that B. oliviae is basal to all other previously described pan-xenosaurs (members of Pan-Xenosaurus, the total clade of Xenosaurus) except species of Entomophontes, to which it is closely related. Given that B. oliviae and Entomophontes are known from a limited fossil record, with only one recovered element (the maxilla) in common, the level of support for this relationship is surprisingly high. We use a posteriori time-calibrated trees and ghost lineages (maximum parsimony) and divergence time estimates under the fossilized birth-death process (Bayesian inference) to infer patterns of extinction across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary in Pan-Xenosaurus, including those consistent with pseudoextinction. Whereas the fossil record documents a single lineage in the latest Cretaceous, results from analyses using these analytical methods suggest that three or more species existed, with high survivorship across the K-Pg boundary. The surviving lineages were apparently present at proximal to intermediate distance from the Chicxulub impact site, thought to have a causal relationship with extinctions across the K-Pg boundary. The premaxilla and dorsal vertebrae of E. incrustatus and B. oliviae, respectively, independently suggest that each of these taxa had a depressed body form consistent with extant crevice-dwelling squamates, which may have played a role in the high survivorship of pan-xenosaur lineages across the K-Pg boundary. ItemDescription of two new species of Apomecynini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3985)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-02-08) Gutiérrez, Nayeli; Santos-Silva, AntonioTwo new species of cerambycid beetles are described and illustrated: Morrisia skillmani from Guatemala and Adetaptera jejetama from Mexico. Additionally, a map illustrating the geographic distribution of the species of Morrisia Santos-Silva et al., 2019, and a key to the species of the genus are provided.