Browsing by Author "Thomas, David Hurst."
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ItemAn aboriginal rock alignment in the Toiyabe Range, central Nevada. American Museum novitates ; no. 2534(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1974) Thomas, David Hurst.; McKee, Edwin H."Two unusual rock walls in end-to-end alignment situated southeast of Austin, Lander County, Nevada, are described and their possible origin and use discussed. The eastern wall, about 300 feet long, extends from a canyon bottom, up a moderately steep hillside, and terminates just short of cliffy outcrops about two-thirds of the way to the ridge crest. The western wall, approximately 200 feet long, runs about halfway up the opposite side of the ridge. Judging from the type of projectile points found nearby, the walls are tentatively dated to the Reveille or the Underdown phases of the local archeological sequence (i.e., ca. 1000 BC to AD 1300). Several alternative hypotheses are considered to explain this feature, probably the best of which is that the rock barriers are prehistoric hunting fences, constructed to ambush deer or antelope"--P. . ItemThe anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 1, Natural and cultural history. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 55, pt. 2([New York] : American Museum of Natural History, 1978) Thomas, David Hurst.; Jones, Grant D.; Durham, Roger S.; Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Moore, Clarence B. (Clarence Bloomfield), 1852-1936."This volume, the first in a series, considers the natural and cultural background to anthropological research being conducted on St. Catherines Island, Georgia. The island is one of a complex series of barrier islands, of various orgins. The extant vegetation is an interesting mixture of natural succession, periodically disrupted by recent historical processes. Archaeologists have worked on St. Catherines Island discontinuously since 1896, when C.B. Moore conducted excavations in several prehistoric burial mounds. The University of Georgia then conducted a program of burial mound and midden excavations in 1969-1970, and the American Museum of Natural History began intensive archaeological investigations on St. Catherines Island in 1974. The ethnohistory of the Guale Indians is discussed in detail, suggesting that they were essentially a riverine people with strong internal trade contacts. Guale political organization was that of the classic Creek chiefdom. Each chiefdom maintained two principal towns, and may have been organized according to dual political organization. This interpretation contrasts sharply with the traditional view of the Guale, who are often characterized as isolated, scattered, shifting cultivators. The volume concludes with a historical outline of St. Catherines Island from the early Spanish mission period up to present times"--P. 159. ItemThe anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 2, The Refuge-Deptford mortuary complex. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 56, pt. 1(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1978) Thomas, David Hurst.; Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Clark, George R.; DePratter, Chester B.; Lunsford, Ann Marie."Data and implications from nine burial mounds excavated by crews of the American Museum of Natural History on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, are given in this monograph. As a group, these nine sites define a surprisingly homogeneous pattern and these data comprise virtually all that is known regarding the mortuary customs practiced along the Georgia and Florida coast between ca. 1500 B.C. to A.D. 600. The sites are rather unspectacular sand mounds, which exhibit a remarkably consistent stratigraphic patterning. The skeletal materials recovered are poorly preserved, except in the rare case when shell was added to the interment. The radiocarbon evidence, consisting of 29 determinations from the nine mounds, strongly suggests a marked periodicity in the use of these sites. In all cases, the areas seem to have been visited for centuries - in some cases millenia - prior to the actual construction of the mortuary mound. Several graves were placed into this pre-mound surface, and mound-building activities occurred at all sites sometime during the first 600 years A.D. A number of intrusive burials were added shortly thereafter, and then ceremonial activities virtually ceased at all sites. Most cultural materials found inside the mounds were accidental inclusions which resulted from pre-mound sacred (and probably secular) activities. Very few deliberate grave offerings were found. The biocultural evidence suggests that the Refuge-Deptford population enjoyed good health, although they suffered from an extreme rate of dental attrition. Although the data are limited, these sites seem to reflect an egalitarian sociopolitical organization operative during Refuge-Deptford times. The relatively high proportion of bundle burials seems to suggest that the annual round of these peoples exploited both island and mainland resources. We offer a number of cautious speculations regarding the nature of ritual and symbolism during the Refuge and Deptford phases. These suggestions are a variety of hypotheses that require testing with data from both mortuary and habitation sites of this period"--P. 5. ItemThe anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 57, pt. 3(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1982) Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Thomas, David Hurst."Skeletal remains from the prehistoric coast of Georgia are the basis for this study. The effects of agriculture on the human skeleton are examined and explained in the present paper. The region was chosen because (1) there is a large skeletal series representative of both an early preagricultural adapatation (2200 B.C.-A.D. 1150) and a later mixed agricultural and hunting-gathering adaptation (A.D. 1150-A.D. 1550); (2) the Georgia coast represents continuous in situ cultural development from at least 2200 B.C. to A.D. 1550, implying human biological continuity for at least 3500 years prior to European contact; and (3) the economic regime for the Georgia coast has been documented by a large body of archaeological and ethnohistoric data. A series of skeletal and dental changes are viewed in light of an adaptational model encompassing disease and size of the hard tissues - skeletal and dental - and their respective responses to the behavioral shift from a hunting and gathering lifeway to one that incorporated corn agriculture after A.D. 1150. The model consists of two parts. First, with the introduction of an agriculture-based diet and consequent increase in population size and density, the pathology reflecting a general rise in occurrence of infectious disease due to an expansion in population size and a high dietary carbohydrate base should increase. Second, with the adoption of corn as a major dietary constituent, the softer foodstuffs and more sedentary lifeway associated with that adaptation should result in a respective decrease in functional demand on the masticatory complex in particular and on the body in general. In addition, the element of poor nutrition should come into play in an economy in which plant domesticates, and corn in particular, are the focus of diet. The comparison and analysis of the pathology and metric data support the model. In addition, the detailed examination of these data by sex suggests that the behavioral alterations that occurred consequent to the change in lifeway differentially affected females"--P. 159. ItemThe anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 4, The St. Catherines period mortuary complex. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 57, pt. 4(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1982) Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Thomas, David Hurst.; DePratter, Chester B.; Grayson, Donald K."The results of archaeological excavations of two St. Catherines period burial mounds - Marys Mound and Johns Mound - by field crews from the University of Georgia and the American Museum of Natural History are presented. Analysis of the ceramics recovered from the two mortuary localities suggests that both mounds were constructed during the terminal phase of the St. Catherines period, probably during the late twelfth or early thirteenth century A.D. Study of the human skeletal remains suggests that these people were physically robust and enjoyed good health, both skeletal and dental. Analysis of nonhuman skeletal remains shows that most identified taxa are present on St. Catherines Island today. In addition, the presence of the domestic pig, Sus scrofa, in association with one iterment from Johns Mound, points to historic (Altahama) period use of this locality. Thin-section analysis of whole clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) from both sites indicates that time of harvesting or death for all specimens falls within 'late fall' to 'late spring' (November to May)"--P. 273. ItemThe archaeology [i.e. anthropology] of St. Catherines Island. 5, The South End Mound complex. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 63, pt. 1(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1986) Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Thomas, David Hurst.; Hutchinson, Dale L.; O'Brien, Deborah Mayer.; Pendleton, Lorann S. A.; Peter, Debra.; Moore, Clarence B. (Clarence Bloomfield), 1852-1936."This volume presents results of archaeological excavations of two prehistoric burial mounds on St. Catherines Island, Georgia. South End Mound I is an Irene period mortuary site, initially excavated by C.B. Moore during the winter of 1896-1897. Although Moore adequately described his investigations in a subsequent publication, he retained only six complete ceramic vessels for later analysis. These vessels have been reexamined and are discussed here. None of the skeletal materials excavated by Moore, to our knowledge, was saved for later analysis. Field crews from the American Museum of Natural History recently reexcavated parts of this site, finding evidence that at least some of the primary human burials previously exposed by Moore remain intact beneath the backdirt of South End Mound I. Further investigation might be fruitful. South End Mound II, a previously unexplored mortuary site, was discovered not far from Moore's excavations. This St. Catherines/Savannah period burial mound, extensively excavated by the American Museum of Natural History, had a central pit containing two cremations and a mass grave containing at least 15 individuals. Grave goods included a perforated copper sheet, worked galena, a river otter mandible, and a polished stone pendant. Prehistoric copper has rarely been reported from archaeological contexts from this area and, to our knowledge, this is the first occurrence of galena in coastal Georgia. Mound construction methods resemble those employed at Johns and Marys mounds, two roughly contemporary mortuary sites on St. Catherines Island"--P. 4. ItemThe archaeology of Hidden Cave, Nevada. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 61, pt. 1(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1985) Thomas, David Hurst.; Bernstein, Nancy K.; Davis, Jonathan O. (Jonathan Ogden).; Goodman, Stacy.; Grayson, Donald K.; Hatoff, Brian.; Hattori, Eugene Mitsuru.; Hughes, Richard E. (Richard Edward), 1947-; Ingbar, Eric.; Jackson, Robert.; Kelly, Robert L.; Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Loy, Thomas.; Mead, Jim I.; Mehringer, Peter J.; Pendleton, Lorann S. A.; Peter, Debra.; Smith, Gerald R.; Wigand, Peter. ItemThe archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. 1, Search and discovery. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 63, pt. 2(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1987) Thomas, David Hurst.; Pendleton, Lorann S. A. ItemThe Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. 2, Biocultural interpretations of a population in transition. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; no. 68(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1990) Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Choi, Inui.; Fresia, Anne E.; Hutchinson, Dale L.; Lee-Thorp, Julia.; Moore, Katherine.; Powell, Mary Lucas.; Ruff, Christopher.; Russell, Katherine F.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; Simpson, Scott W.; Thomas, David Hurst. ItemThe archaeology of Monitor Valley. 1, Epistemology. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 58, pt. 1(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1983) Thomas, David Hurst.; Kautz, Robert.; Melhorn, Wilton N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Trexler Dennis T. ItemThe archaeology of Monitor Valley. 2, Gatecliff Shelter. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 59, pt. 1(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1983) Thomas, David Hurst.; Davis, Jonathan O. (Jonathan Ogden).; Grayson, Donald K.; Melhorn, Wilton N.; Thomas, Trudy.; Trexler, Dennis T.; Adovasio, J. M.; Andrews, R. L.; Bennyhoff, James A. (James Allan), 1926-1993.; Bierwirth, Susan L.; Casteel, Richard W.; Hattori, Eugene Mitsuru.; Hughes, Richard E. (Richard Edward), 1947-; Kautz, Robert R.; Kramer, Karen.; Lanner, Ronald M.; Mayer, Deborah.; Mead, Jim I.; Rhode, David.; Rowan, Robert R.; Thompson, Robert S.; Williams, Leonard R. ItemThe archaeology of Monitor Valley. 3, Survey and additional excavations. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 66, pt. 2(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1988) Thomas, David Hurst.; Bierwirth, Susan L.; Grayson, Donald K.; Kautz, Robert R.; Kelly, Robert L.; Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Melhorn, Wilton N.; Thomas, Trudy.; Trexler, Dennis T. ItemThe archaeology of Silent Snake Springs, Humboldt County, Nevada. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 55, pt. 3(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1979) Layton, Thomas N.; Thomas, David Hurst. ItemThe beads of St. Catherines Island. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 89)(2009) Blair, Elliot, 1981-; Pendleton, Lorann S. A.; Francis, Peter, Jr.; Powell, Eric A.; Thomas, David Hurst.This volume examines the almost 70,000 individual beads recovered during extensive archaeological excavations on St. Catherines Island (Georgia)--primarily from Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. Founded in the 16th century, this site was the capital and administrative center of the province of Guale in Spanish Florida for the better part of a century. This volume describes and classifies this extraordinary bead assemblage, putting the entire collection into a worldwide perspective. Part I describes the global origins of beadmaking and provides an overview of previous studies of bead manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the beads of the Spanish colonial empire, the source of most trade beads recovered on the Island. Part II presents a history of archaeological research on St. Catherines Island, a long-term perspective of the aboriginal people who lived there, and the details of archaeological work at Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. It also presents a comprehensive catalog of the St. Catherines Island bead assemblage. Part III discusses the Santa Catalina bead assemblage from a global perspective, specifically examining presumed centers of origin and the diverse manufacturing techniques employed by various glassmaking guilds in Europe. Part IV concludes with a consideration of the bead assemblage within the cultural matrix of 16th- and 17th-century Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. ItemBioarchaeology of the late prehistoric Guale : South End Mound I, St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; no.84([New York] : American Museum of Natural History, 2002) Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Creekmore, Andrew.; Hutchinson, Dale L.; Joyce, Caroline.; Legge, Scott S.; McNeil, Jessica.; Moore, Elizabeth.; Papathanasiou, Anastasia.; Reitz, Elizabeth Jean.; Schmidt, Christopher W.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; Sering, Leslie E.; Sullivan, Amy.; Thomas, David Hurst.; Townsend, Randy R.; Weinand, Daniel C.; Moore, Clarence B. (Clarence Bloomfield), 1852-1936."South End Mound I is one of more than 50 mortuary sites (mostly burial mounds) excavated by Clarence Bloomfield Moore (1897) during his five-month expedition to the Georgia coast, and it is one of seven mounds he described on St. Catherines Island. The mound was subsequently tested by Larsen and Thomas (1986), who reported on a small sample of fragmentary human remains left at the site by Moore. This monograph reports on human remains recovered from a large-scale excavation undertaken by Larsen. This excavation revealed that Moore disturbed skeletal remains, but these remains were left in the general location of their original discovery. Our conjoining of fragmentary bones and teeth allowed identification of 26 of the 50 skeletons encountered by Moore. Importantly, this sample provides the only late prehistoric (Irene period) skeletal series from St. Catherines Island, allowing for the first time temporal comparisons with both earlier prehistoric populations (e.g., Johns Mound) and later historic populations (Santa Catalina de Guale) from the island. Analysis of faunal remains and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen indicates that the population consumed a variety of terrestrial and marine fauna, along with significant amounts of maize in diet. Analysis of dental caries prevalence is consistent with this reconstruction. In addition, presence of skeletal infections indicates poorer health in general relative to prehistoric St. Catherines Islanders. At least some of the periosteal reactions displayed on tibiae reflect treponematosis (nonvenereal syphilis). The overall pattern of health is strikingly similar to contemporary late prehistoric populations from the Georgia coast in particular and to the Eastern Woodlands of North America in general. Lastly, study of body size and postcranial skeletal morphology indicates a similar pattern of activity and lifestyle as for other groups from the Georgia Bight during the late prehistoric era. Overall, this bioarchaeological analysis reveals that the shift from a foraging lifeway to one that incorporated maize agriculture likely had a profound impact on health and lifestyle"--P. 5. ItemThe Fort Sage Drift Fence, Washoe County, Nevada. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 58, pt. 2(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1983) Pendleton, Lorann S. A.; Thomas, David Hurst."The Fort Sage Drift Fence, approximately 50 km. north of Reno, Nevada, consists of a well-constructed rock alignment nearly 1800 m. long and in places almost a meter high. This site probably once functioned as an aboriginal hunting facility, built more than 3000 years ago by logistically organized hunter-gatherers. The drift fence was probably used to ambush antelope, although it could have been used in the hunting of bighorn sheep in late fall or winter"--P. 4. ItemFrom Santa Elena to St. Augustine : indigenous ceramic variability (A.D. 1400-1700) : proceedings of the Second Caldwell Conference, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, March 30-April 1, 2007. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 90)(New York : American Museum of Natural History., 2009) Deagan, Kathleen A.; Thomas, David Hurst.; Ashley, Keith H.; DePratter, Chester B.; Saunders, Rebecca, 1955-; Waters, Gifford J.; Williams, J. Mark.; Worth, John E.; Caldwell Conference (2nd : 2007 : Saint Catherines Island, Ga.)Archaeologists have long known that important changes took place in aboriginal ceramic assemblages of the northern Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina coast after the arrival of Europeans. New pottery designs emerged and aboriginal demographics became fluid. Catastrophic population loss occurred in some places, new groups formed in others, and movements of people occurred nearly everywhere. Although culturally and linguistically diverse, the native inhabitants of this region shared the unwelcome encounter with Spanish people and colonial institutions, beginning in the early decades of the 16th century and continuing into the 18th century. Spanish missions and military outposts were established at native communities throughout the area, and these sites have been studied by both archaeologists and historians for decades. As a consequence, the lower southeastern Atlantic coast offers one of the most intensively studied episodes of multicultural colonial engagement in America. The Second Caldwell Conference was organized to bring researchers working in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida together to address and more precisely define aboriginal ceramic change throughout the region as a baseline for approaching a more broadly based anthropological perspective on the consequences of encounter. The scope of inquiry was restricted to late prehistoric and early historic (A.D. 1400-1700) aboriginal ceramic wares from Santa Elena (South Carolina) to St. Augustine (Florida). The primary objective was to more precisely establish the technology, form, and design of the archaeological ceramic evidence. Without devolving into semantic and/or taxonomic wrangles, we examined how well (or poorly) archaeological labels used throughout the region to identify pottery serve as reliable proxies for the physical examples of those ceramic traditions. We also attempted to define the time-space distribution of the various ceramic traditions and pottery types throughout the south Atlantic coast. Specifically, we asked: (1) Did the indigenous ceramic complexes change fundamentally with the arrival of the Spaniards? (2) Or did indigenous ceramic traditions essentially persist, and merely shifted geographically? The eight contributions of this volume examine, on a case-by-case basis, the most important aboriginal ceramic assemblages from Santa Elena southward to St. Augustine, across the region, contextualizing each assemblage with the relevant physical stratigraphy, radiocarbon dates, associations with Euro-American wares, and documentary evidence. We also attempt to situate the physical ceramic evidence from the northern Florida-Georgia-South Carolina coastline with the contemporary archaeological assemblages in the immediate interior. The volume concludes with an epilogue that summarizes the results and general contributions of the conference, relative to archaeological practice in the lower Atlantic coastal Southeast, and also to the larger cultural and methodological issues raised by these papers. ItemGeoarchaeology of St. Catherines Island, Georgia : proceedings of the Fourth Caldwell Conference, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, March 27-29, 2009. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 94)(American Museum of Natural History., 2011) Bishop, Gale A.; Rollins, Harold B., 1939-; Thomas, David Hurst.; Beratan, Kathi K., 1957-; Booth, Robert K.; Camann, Eleanor J.; Chowns, T. M.; Keith-Lucas, Timothy.; Martin, Anthony J.; Meyer, Brian K.; Pirkle, Fredric L.; Pirkle, William A.; Potter, Donald B., 1923-; Pottinger, James E.; Prezant, Robert S.; Rich, Fredrick J.; Rindsberg, Andrew K.; Sanger, Matthew C., 1976-; Stahlman, Patty A.; Toll, Ronald Bruce, 1955-; Vance, Regina K.; Vega, Anthony J.; Vento, F. J.; American Museum of Natural History.; Saint Catherines Island Foundation.; Caldwell Conference (4th : 2009 : Saint Catherines Island, Ga.)This edited volume addresses the geoarchaeology of St. Catherines Island (Georgia). The field of geoarchaeology has typically been defined as either geology pursued within an archaeological framework or (sometimes the reverse) as archaeology framed with the help of geological methodology. Either way, the formalized objectives of geoarchaeology define a broad range of pursuits, from placing archaeological sites into relative and absolute temporal context through the application of stratigraphic principles and absolute dating techniques, to understanding the natural processes of site formation, to reconstructing the landscapes that existed around a site or group of sites at the time of occupation. The editors of this volume have generally followed the lead of G.R. Rapp and C.L. Hill (2006, Geoarchaeology : the earth-science approach to archaeological interpretation) by stressing the importance of multiple viewpoints and methodologies in applying geoscience techniques to evaluate the archaeological record. In the broadest sense, then, Geoarchaeology of St. Catherines Island applies multiple earth science concepts, techniques, or knowledge bases to the known archaeological record and the processes that created that record. This volume consists of 16 papers presenting the newest research on the stratigraphic and geomorphological evolution of the St. Catherines Island landscape. Of particular interest are presentations addressing the relative timing and nature of sedimentation, paleobiology, sea level change, stream capture, hydrology, and erosional patterning evident on St. Catherines Island (and to some degree the rest of the Georgia Bight). These papers were initially presented at the Fourth Caldwell Conference, cosponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and the St. Catherines Island Foundation, held on St. Catherines Island (Georgia), March 27-29, 2009. Table of contents: Why this archaeologist cares about geoarchaeology : some pasts and futures of St. Catherines Island / David Hurst Thomas -- Evolution of late Pleistocene-Holocene climates and environments of St. Catherines Island and the Georgia Bight / Fredrick J. Rich, Anthony Vega, and Frank J. Vento -- Geoarchaeological research at St. Catherines Island : defining the geological foundation / Gale A. Bishop, Brian K. Meyer, R. Kelly Vance, and Fredrick J. Rich -- Development of a late Pleistocene-Holocene genetic stratigraphic framework for St. Catherines Island : archaeological implications / Frank J. Vento and Patty A. Stahlman -- Ichnological diagnosis of ancient storm-washover fans, Yellow Banks Bluff, St. Catherines Island / Anthony J. Martin and Andrew K. Rindsberg -- Quaternary vegetation and depositional history of St. Catherines Island / Fredrick J. Rich and Robert K. Booth -- Recent shoreline erosion and vertical accretion patterns, St. Catherines Island / Donald B. Potter Jr. -- Role of storm events in beach ridge formation, St. Catherines Island / Harold B. Rollins, Kathi Beratan, and James E. Pottinger -- Drainage changes at Ossabaw, St. Catherines, and Sapelo sounds and their influence on island morphology and spit building on St. Catherines Island / Timothy M. Chowns -- Vibracores and vibracore transects : constraining the geological and cultural history of St. Catherines Island / Gale A. Bishop, David Hurst Thomas, Matthew C. Sanger, Brian K. Meyer, R. Kelly Vance, Robert K. Booth, Fredrick J. Rich, Donald B. Potter, and Timothy Keith-Lucas -- Application of ground penetrating radar to investigations of the stratigraphy, structure, and hydrology of St. Catherines Island / R. Kelly Vance, Gale A. Bishop, Fredrick J. Rich, Brian K. Meyer, and Eleanor J. Camann -- Postsettlement dispersal and dynamic repopulation of estuarine habitats by adult Mercenaria mercenaria, St. Catherines Island / Robert S. Prezant, Harold B. Rollins, and Ronald B. Toll -- The foundation for sea turtle geoarchaeology and zooarchaeology : morphology of recent and ancient sea turtle nests, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, and Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone, Elbert County, Colorado / Gale A. Bishop, Fredric L. Pirkle, Brian K. Meyer, and William A. Pirkle -- Sea turtle habitat deterioration on St. Catherines Island : defining the modern transgression / Gale A. Bishop and Brian K. Meyer -- Modeling indigenous hunting and harvesting of sea turtles and their eggs on the Georgia Coast / Gale A. Bishop, David Hurst Thomas, and Brian K. Meyer -- Geomorphology, sea level, and marine resources : St. Catherines Island / Harold B. Rollins and David Hurst Thomas -- Appendix 1. Noncultural radiocarbon record from St. Catherines Island : a compendium -- Appendix 2. Vibracore record from St. Catherines Island : a compendium. ItemLife among the tides : recent archaeology on the Georgia Bight : proceedings of the Sixth Caldwell Conference, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, May 20-22, 2011. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 98)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-06-14) Thomas, David Hurst.; Thompson, Victor D.; Alexander, Clark R. (Clark Raymond), 1960-; Ashley, Keith H.; Blair, Elliot, 1981-; Cordell, Ann S.; Deagan, Kathleen A.; DePratter, Chester B.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.; Garrison, Ervan G.; Hayes, Royce H.; Jefferies, Richard W.; Keene, Deborah Ann.; Mahar, Ginessa J.; Marrinan, Rochelle A.; Moore, Christopher R.; Napolitano, Matthew F.; Parsons, Alexandra L.; Rolland, Vicki L.; Sanger, Matthew C., 1976-; Sipe, Ryan O.; Thompson, Amanda D. Roberts.; Thunen, Robert L.; Turck, John A.; Wallis, Neill J.; Whitley, Thomas G.; American Museum of Natural History.; Saint Catherines Island Foundation.; Caldwell Conference (6th : 2011 : Saint Catherines Island, Ga.)Although this volume covers a broad range of temporal and methodological topics, the chapters are unified by a geographic focus on the archaeology of the Georgia Bight. The various research projects span multiple time periods (including Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian, and contact periods) and many incorporate specialized analyses (such as petrographic point counting, shallow geophysics, and so forth). The 26 contributors conducting this cutting-edge work represent the full spectrum of the archaeological community, including museum, academic, student, and contract archaeologists. Despite the diversity in professional and theoretical backgrounds, temporal periods examined, and methodological approaches pursued, the volume is unified by four distinct, yet interrelated, themes. Contributions in Part I discuss a range of analytical approaches for understanding time, exchange, and site layout. Chapters in Part II model coastal landscapes from both environmental and social perspectives. The third section addresses site-specific studies of late prehistoric architecture and village layout throughout the Georgia Bight. Part IV presents new and ongoing research into the Spanish mission period of this area. These papers were initially presented and discussed at the Sixth Caldwell Conference, cosponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and the St. Catherines Island Foundation, held on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, May 20-22, 2011. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Revising the ¹⁴C reservoir correction for St. Catherines Island, Georgia / David Hurst Thomas, Matthew C. Sanger, and Royce H. Hayes -- An assessment of coastal faunal data from Georgia and northeast Florida / Alexandra L. Parsons and Rochelle A. Marrinan -- Archaeological geophysics on St. Catherines Island : beyond prospection / Ginessa J. Mahar -- Paste variability and clay resource utilization at the Fountain of Youth site, St. Augustine, 8SJ31 / Ann S. Cordell and Kathleen A. Deagan -- Petrographic analysis of pottery and clay samples from the Georgia Bight : evidence of regional social interactions / Neill J. Wallis and Ann S. Cordell -- Past shorelines of the Georgia coast / Chester B. DePratter and Victor D. Thompson -- Coastal landscapes and their relationship to human settlement on the Georgia coast / John A. Turck and Clark R. Alexander -- The role of small islands in foraging economies of St. Catherines Island / Matthew F. Napolitano -- Ever-shifting landscapes : tracking changing spatial usage along coastal Georgia / Matthew C. Sanger -- A paleoeconomic model of the Georgia coast (4500-300 B.P.) / Thomas G. Whitley -- A survey of Irene phase architecture on the Georgia coast / Deborah A. Keene and Ervan G. Garrison -- Life and death on the Ogeechee : a view from the Redbird Creek village / Ryan O. Sipe -- Mission San Joseph de Sapala : mission-period archaeological research on Sapelo Island / Richard W. Jefferies and Christopher R. Moore -- The Guale landscape of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale : 30 years of geophysics at a Spanish colonial mission / Elliot H. Blair -- Missions San Buenaventura and Santa Cruz de Guadalquini : retreat from the Georgia coast / Keith H. Ashley, Vicki L. Rolland, and Robert L. Thunen -- Entangling events : the Guale coastal landscape and the Spanish missions / Victor D. Thompson, John A. Turck, Amanda D. Roberts Thompson, and Chester B. DePratter -- Island and coastal archaeology on the Georgia Bight / Scott M. Fitzpatrick. ItemMission and Pueblo Santa Catalina de Guale, St. Catherines Island, Georgia (USA) : a comparative zooarchaeological analysis. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 91)(New York : American Museum of Natural History., 2010) Reitz, Elizabeth Jean, 1946-; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet.; Weinand, Daniel C.; Duncan, Gwyneth A.; Thomas, David Hurst.This volume considers the zooarchaeological evidence for animal use by Spaniards and the Guale people during the First Spanish period (a.d. 1565-1763) on St. Catherines Island, Georgia (USA). The focus is on a combined archaeofaunal assemblage containing 70,324 specimens and the remains of an estimated 510 vertebrate individuals associated with Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. This Spanish mission operated on the island from the 1580s until 1680 in a province known as Spanish Florida. Spanish Florida formerly encompassed portions of the present-day states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, and was the first sustained European colonial enterprise north of Mexico. For many years the rich Spanish heritage of the southeastern United States was neglected as a field of study. Spanish colonists themselves often characterized Spanish Florida as a place of poverty, neglect, and ruin. Over the last 30 years, however, archaeologists have demonstrated that this concept of the colony cannot be accurate. Instead of a poverty-stricken Spanish outpost dependent upon imported goods and institutions, archaeologists find that a complex, multiethnic community existed; one in which pre-Hispanic and Spanish traditions merged to form a new relationship with the cultural and natural environments. The study of animal remains from towns and Roman Catholic missions in Spanish Florida highlights the dynamic interchange between natives and immigrants that resulted in new subsistence patterns blending native and immigrant foodways while taking advantage of the local resource base. Instead of a single, inept, transient Spanish government dominating an invisible or resistant native population, we must now think of Spanish Florida as a place where resilient Native Americans developed new patterns of animal use while influencing the diet and exploitation strategies of immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Africa. TABLE OF CONTENTS: The setting -- The cultural geography of Santa Catalina de Guale / David Hurst Thomas -- Pre-Hispanic subsistence patterns in the southern Georgia Bight -- First Spanish period vertebrate use in St. Augustine and in Apalachee and Timucua provinces -- First Spanish period vertebrate use at Mission Santa Catalina de Guale -- Variability in first Spanish period animal use within Pueblo Santa Catalina de Guale -- An interpretation of Guale hunting strategy based on white-tailed deer increment structures -- Diet, exploitation strategies, and economic contributions in Spanish colonial settings -- Appendix A. Zooarchaeological methods and materials -- Appendix B. The natural history of the southern Georgia Bight and the Carolina Province -- Appendix C. Species lists for the cocina (structure 2), garden/well (structure 2/4), and the friary (structure 4) at Mission Santa Catalina de Guale -- Appendix D. Vertebrate fauna from the auger survey and miscellaneous context assemblages -- Appendix E. Assessing density-mediated attrition in white-tailed deer remains -- Appendix F. Measurements from Convento de San Francisco, Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, Pueblo Santa Catalina de Guale (south and north), and Santa Catalina de Guale auger survey and miscellaneous contexts.