Bioarchaeology of the late prehistoric Guale : South End Mound I, St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; no.84

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[New York] : American Museum of Natural History
"South End Mound I is one of more than 50 mortuary sites (mostly burial mounds) excavated by Clarence Bloomfield Moore (1897) during his five-month expedition to the Georgia coast, and it is one of seven mounds he described on St. Catherines Island. The mound was subsequently tested by Larsen and Thomas (1986), who reported on a small sample of fragmentary human remains left at the site by Moore. This monograph reports on human remains recovered from a large-scale excavation undertaken by Larsen. This excavation revealed that Moore disturbed skeletal remains, but these remains were left in the general location of their original discovery. Our conjoining of fragmentary bones and teeth allowed identification of 26 of the 50 skeletons encountered by Moore. Importantly, this sample provides the only late prehistoric (Irene period) skeletal series from St. Catherines Island, allowing for the first time temporal comparisons with both earlier prehistoric populations (e.g., Johns Mound) and later historic populations (Santa Catalina de Guale) from the island. Analysis of faunal remains and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen indicates that the population consumed a variety of terrestrial and marine fauna, along with significant amounts of maize in diet. Analysis of dental caries prevalence is consistent with this reconstruction. In addition, presence of skeletal infections indicates poorer health in general relative to prehistoric St. Catherines Islanders. At least some of the periosteal reactions displayed on tibiae reflect treponematosis (nonvenereal syphilis). The overall pattern of health is strikingly similar to contemporary late prehistoric populations from the Georgia coast in particular and to the Eastern Woodlands of North America in general. Lastly, study of body size and postcranial skeletal morphology indicates a similar pattern of activity and lifestyle as for other groups from the Georgia Bight during the late prehistoric era. Overall, this bioarchaeological analysis reveals that the shift from a foraging lifeway to one that incorporated maize agriculture likely had a profound impact on health and lifestyle"--P. 5.
104 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 66-69).
The setting -- Previous work at South End Mound I -- Later excavations and bioarchaeological study -- Methods of analysis -- The South End Mound I individuals -- Artifacts / David Hurst Thomas and Jessica McNeil -- Resource utilization and dietary reconstruction / Elizabeth J. Reitz, Clark Spencer Larsen and Margaret J. Schoeninger -- Patterns of community health: pathology -- Dental and skeletal size and morphology.