A relimitation and revision of the Australasian ground spider family Lamponidae (Araneae, Gnaphosoidea). Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 245

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[New York] : American Museum of Natural History
The ground spider family Lamponidae Simon, previously construed to include only the type genus Lampona Thorell, is relimited to encompass 190 species of Australasian gnaphosoids, most of which have been either undescribed or misplaced in the families Corinnidae and Gnaphosidae. Three subfamilies are recognized: the Lamponinae Simon (including nine genera totalling 81 species), the Centrothelinae, new subfamily (type genus Centrothele L. Koch, including 11 genera, totalling 89 species), and the Pseudolamponinae, new subfamily (type genus Pseudolampona, new genus, including two genera, totalling 20 species). Putative synapomorphies for the family, as relimited, include two newly noted characters: a pair of oval, invaginated abdominal sclerites situated just behind the epigastric furrow, and a highly modified promarginal seta originating near the base of the cheliceral fang. As relimited, the lamponids are exclusively Australasian, and are hypothesized to represent the sister group of the worldwide families Gnaphosidae plus Prodidomidae. The most commonly encountered lamponids are large, synanthropic, and occasionally medically important spiders that have generally been identified as Lampona cylindrata (L. Koch) but actually constitute a group of three closely related species: L. cylindrata, L. murina L. Koch, and L. papua, new species. Of these three species, only L. cylindrata has been found in Western and South Australia and in Tasmania, and that species is also common in Victoria and New South Wales, extends north into south-central Queensland, and has apparently been introduced into the South Island of New Zealand. In contrast, only L. murina has been found in eastern Queensland, and that species also occurs south to Victoria and has apparently been introduced into Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, the North Island of New Zealand, and the Kermadec Islands; L. papua is known only from New Guinea. Lampona pseudocylindrata Strand is newly synonymized with L. cylindrata; L. formicaria (Urquhart) is removed from the synonymy of L. cylindrata and placed as a junior synonym of L. murina. Three other specific names are newly synonymized within Lampona: L. subaquila Urquhart with L. ruida L. Koch, and L. obnubila Simon and L. paupercula Simon, both with L. brevipes L. Koch. The female of L. quiqueplagiata Simon and the males of L. flavipes L. Koch, L. macilenta L. Koch, L. pusilla L. Koch, L. ruida L. Koch, L. punctigera Simon, and L. foliifera Simon are described for the first time; 47 new species of Lampona are described. The subgenus Lamponina Strand is elevated to generic level. Lampona scutata Strand and Lampona asperrima Hickman are transferred to Lamponina; the male of the former species and the female of the latter are described for the first time. Four new species of Lamponina are described. Seven new genera of lamponines are described: Lamponoides, Lamponata, Lamponova, Lamponicta, and Lamponusa, each for one new species; Lamponega, for three new species; and Lamponella, for 10 new species that are hypothesized to represent the sister group of all other lamponines. Four genera (Aristerus Simon, Asadipus Simon, Centrothele L. Koch, and Stratius Simon) are transferred from the Corinnidae to the Centrothelinae; Prionosternum Dunn is transferred from the Gnaphosidae to the Centrothelinae. Aristerus is placed as a junior synonym of Asadipus, and 18 new species of Asadipus are described. Stratius is placed as a junior synonym of Centrothele; the males of C. lorata L. Koch and C. mutica (Simon) are described for the first time, and eight new species of Centrothele are described. Asadipus lifoui Berland is transferred to the new genus Centrocalia, its female is newly described, and two new species of Centrocalia are described; the genus appears to be endemic to New Caledonia. Asadipus nitidiceps Simon is transferred to Prionosternum and its male is newly described; males previously associated with its newly designated female lectotype belong to P. scutatum Dunn, the female of which is newly described; one new species of Prionosternum is described. Seven other new centrotheline genera are described: Centrina, for 11 new species; Centsymplia, for 1 new species; Longepi, for 8 new species; Queenvic, for 4 new species; Bigenditia, for 2 new species; Graycassis, for 10 new species; and Notsodipus, for 17 new species. The Pseudolamponinae contains two new genera: Pseudolampona, described for 12 new species, and Paralampona, described for 8 new species. Pseudolamponines are hypothesized to represent the sister group of lamponines plus centrothelines. Hypothesized lamponine synapomorphies include a uniquely even endite shape and tubular pedicel sclerites; putative centrotheline synapomorphies include a highly tuberculate carapace, an anterior abdominal scutum in females, an anteriorly truncated ventral pedicel segment, a weakly sclerotized spot on the anterior surface of the chelicerae, and a longitudinal row of three highly modified cylindrical gland spigots on the posterior median spinnerets. Lamponines and centrothelines are united by a deep and sharply demarcated median groove on the palpal endites.
330 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 327-328) and index.