Revision of the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and their significance as vectors of Chagas' disease. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 163, article 3

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New York : American Museum of Natural History
"The reduviid subfamily Triatominae contains numerous species which are actual or potential vectors of Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. All Triatominae require bloodmeals for their complete development. Most species feed on small terrestrial or arboreal mammals, especially didelphids, edentates, and rodents; others are associated with bats, and some are found with birds. Several triatomines have colonized human habitations, where they transmit Chagas' disease to man and his domestic animals. The epidemiologically most important species are the wide-ranging Triatoma infestans, T. dimidiata, and Rhodnius prolixus. The following are also active vectors of Chagas' disease, although more localized: Triatoma barberi, brasiliensis, carrioni, guasayana, maculata, patagonica, pallidipennis, phyllosoma, pseudomaculata, rubrofasciata, sordida, and rubida, Panstrongylus chinai, megistus, and rufotuberculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, and pallescens. A survey of the external structures of the Triatominae and their terminology is presented to facilitate use of the keys and comprehension of the descriptions. The Triatominae share a derived character not found in other reduviids, viz., a membranous connection between the second and third rostral segments. This structure permits an extensive flexure of the third segment, in connection with the act of bloodsucking. The trichobothria of the second antennal segment of the adult are described for the first time; their number and arrangement are diagnostic on the tribal and in some cases generic level. Trichobothria were also discovered on the anterior femora of Cavernicola pilosa. Another previously unknown structure is the presence of a pair of flasklike invaginations on the terminal rostral segment of Dipetalogaster maximus. The shape of the stridulatory sulcus of the prosternum is shown to be, in some cases, diagnostic on the generic level. Some Triatominae have adopted strategies that allow them to expand their abdomen for the ingestion of unusually large bloodmeals; three such strategies, involving membranization of part of the connexivum and correlated modifications of the lateral part of the abdomen, are described. The male genitalia of plesiomorphic triatomines are of simple structure, but derived forms are shown to have variously specialized phalli, involving modifications of the articulatory apparatus, the basal plate struts, and the dorsal phallosoma plate. First and fifth instar nymphs are studied morphologically, mainly on the generic level. A newly discovered character of first instar nymphs is the absence or presence of a group of elongate sensory hairs on the metatarsus. Nymphs of all instars of Microtriatoma and Parabelminus have three pairs of spongy fossulae as do the adults, a condition unique in the subfamily. The subfamily Triatominae is restricted to the Nearctic, Neotropical, and Oriental regions, entering the Australian region marginally. Triatoma rubrofasciata is tropicopolitan. There are 13 genera in the Western Hemisphere, with the center of diversity in South America. The Oriental region contains one endemic genus and an apparently monophyletic species group of Triatoma, a genus occupying the entire range of the subfamily. The division of the Triatominae into five tribes is maintained. One tribe, the Triatomini, is paraphyletic; the Rhodniini, Cavernicolini, Bolboderini, and Alberproseniini are either monophyletic or monotypic. The five tribes, 14 genera, and 111 species are described or redescribed and illustrated and their synonyms given; host relations and epidemiological role are stated where known. Keys for tribal, generic, and specific identification of adults as well as for generic identification of first and fifth instar nymphs are given in English, and, where pertinent, in Spanish and/or Portuguese. Six new species are described: Triatoma guazu (Paraguay); Linshcosteus chota and kali (India), Belminus herreri (Panama), Parabelminus yurupucu (Brazil: Bahia), and Microtriatoma borbai (Brazil: Parana). Nine names are newly synonymized: Triatoma ninoi Carcavallo et al. with T. eratyrusiformis Del Ponte; T. pessoai Sherlock and Serafim and T. bahiensis Sherlock and Serafim, both with T. lenti Sherlock and Serafim; T. novaeguineae Miller with T. leopoldi (Schouteden); T. pallidula Miller with T. migrans Breddin; T. phyllosoma usingeri Mazzotti with T. pallidipennis (Stal); T. bruchi Mazza and Jörg with T. rubrovaria (Blanchard); T. garciabesi Carcavallo et al. with T. sordida (Steal); Rhodnius amazonicus Almeida et al. with R. pictipes Stal"--P. 127.
p. 125-520 : ill. ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 499-515) and index.