The bionomics and immature stages of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Protepeolus (Anthophoridae, Nomadinae). American Museum novitates ; no. 2640

Supplemental Materials
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History
"Protepeolus singularis was found attacking cells in nests of Diadasia olivacea in southeastern Arizona. The following biological information is presented: behavior of adult females while searching for host nests; intraspecific interactions of females at the host nesting site; interactions with host adults; oviposition; and such larval activities as crawling, killing the host, feeding, defecation, and cocoon spinning. In general, adult female behavior corresponds to that of other Nomadinae. Females perch for extended periods near nest entrances and avoid host females, which attack parasites when encountered. Females apparently learn the locations of host nests and return to them frequently. This may account for the high rate of cell parasitism (47%) in five nests excavated by the authors. Females oviposit in open cells and hide their eggs in the cell walls as do all Nomadinae. As this is considered to be an autapomorphic feature of the Nomadinae, Protepeolus and the other Nomadinae are believed to have had a common parasitic ancestor in spite of numerous biological dissimilarities. The first instar Protepeolus attacks and kills the pharate last larval instar of the host before consuming the provisions, a unique feature for nomadine bees. First and last larval instars and the pupa are described taxonomically and and illustrated. Brief comparative descriptions of the other larval instars are also given. Larval features attest to the common origin of Protepeolus and the other Nomadinae. Cladistic analysis using 27 characters of mature larvae of the Nomadinae demonstrates that Isepeolus is a sister group to all the other Nomadinae known from larvae, including Protepeolus, and that Protepeolus is a sister group to the Nomadinae excluding Isepeolus. Because of this and because larval Isepeolus and Protepeolus differ in numerous autapomorphic features, Isepeolus is placed in its own tribe, the Isepeolini, new tribe. Appended is a brief account distinguishing the four larval instars of the host, Diadasia olivacea"--P. [1].
24 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 24).