A phylogenetic, revised classification of genera in the Drosophilidae (Diptera). Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 197

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[New York] : American Museum of Natural History
"A phylogenetic system and classification of most genera and subgenera of the Drosophilidae are proposed that incorporate tribes, subtribes, infratribes, and genus groups. The new classification is based on a cladistic analysis using the computer parsimony program HENNIG86 and 217 adult morphological characters for a representative set of 120 species. A more complete matrix is provided, with 160 species in most genera and subgenera of the family. The history of drosophilid classification is reviewed, and the relevance of morphological (vs. molecular) data in phylogenetic reconstruction is briefly discussed. Position of the family in the superfamily Ephydroidea is examined and based on previously published data and new characters. The family Drosophilidae is the sister group to the Curtonotidae; this pair is the sister group to the rest of the Ephydroidea (Diastatidae, Campichoetidae, Camillidae, and Ephydridae). The Drosophilidae are monophyletic and diagnosed as possessing two basal costal wing vein breaks, a lateral seam in the pedicel, three pairs of frontal orbital setae (1 being proclinate, others reclinate), abdominal spiracle pairs VI + VII lying at base of tergite VI in males, sternite VI and tergite VII lost in males, small basal-medial wing cell lost (rederived in some taxa), and minute spines on the mesal surface of the fore femur lost. Each of the 217 characters is described and most are illustrated in detail; many are newly discovered, including features from the proboscis to the male and female terminalia. The traditional subfamily classification of the Steganinae and Drosophilinae is preserved, based on new, apomorphic evidence. An alternative classification to that of Okada (1989) is proposed, with 4 tribes, 6 subtribes, 2 infratribes, and 13 genus complexes/groups (informal categories), and all but 5 genera and subgenera are classified within these taxa. In addition, the Drosophila subgenera Hirtodrosophila, Lordiphosa, and Scaptodrosophila are each removed from that genus and elevated to generic rank. The Hawaiian drosophilids formerly placed in the subgenus Drosophila were found not to belong to this genus. Genus Idiomyia, new status, is used to include this large, obviously monophyletic group of Hawaiian endemic species, as well as the genera Ateledrosophila and Nudidrosophila. The closest relative of Idiomyia sensu lato appears to be the Zygothrica genus group (including Hirtodrosophila, Mycodrosophila, Paramycodrosophila, Paraliodrosophila, and Zygothrica). Scaptomyza, including the Hawaiian species in this genus, is monophyletic; Drosophila (Engiscaptomyza) is most closely related to Scaptomyza. The cladogram based on morphological data is compared to trees of Throckmorton, Okada, and several based on molecular data for a smaller set of drosophilid taxa. Inconsistencies between hypotheses are discussed. All higher-level generic group taxa and new genera are diagnosed"--P. 3.
139 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 123-128).