Notes on North Carolina salamanders with especial reference to the egg-laying habits of Leurognathus and Desmognathus. American Museum novitates ; no. 153

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New York City : The American Museum of Natural History
"Desmognathus quadramaculatus attaches its eggs to stones, either in a niche or crevice or to a protected under-surface. The eggs vary in number from twenty-five to forty, and form, as a rule, one compact single-, double, or triple-layered cluster. The cluster is deposited in a tiny waterfall and, if not actually in the water, is very near it. Each egg is separately attached to the stone by an elastic, gelatinous string. The female often stays with the eggs. Desmognathus phoca, though very similar to D. quadramaculatus in egg-laying habits, differs from the latter in certain essentials. D, phoca, being more terrestrial, deposits its eggs in decayed wood lying in and along brooklets as well as on the under-surfaces of stones and stream beds. D. phoca probably averages fewer eggs to the cluster than D. quadramaculatus. The female D. phoca stays with its eggs. Leurognathus marmorata appears to have egg-laying habits similar in every essential to those of D. quadramaculatus. Desmognathus fuscus carolinensis deposits its eggs immediately above, or just beside, flowing water, usually in or under thick moss. The eggs, placed in a shallow depression or cavity shaped by the mother, are guarded by her. They usually form a compact, spherical cluster resembling a bunch of toy balloons. The average number of eggs in a cluster is ten to eleven. The eggs of D. quadramaculatus and L. marmorata are herein recorded and described for the first time. The eggs of D. phoca have been recorded by Brady. His description is inadequate. The accompanying notes on the breeding habits are also new. With the exception of two batches mentioned by Dunn, the eggs of carolinensis have never before been described. The similarity in the egg-laying habits of L. marmorata, D. quadramaculatus, and phoca is very striking. In this respect the three salamanders form a compact group and yet obviously represent three stages of transition from a totally aquatic form like L. marmorata,, through a semi-aquatic one like D. quadramaculatus, to a still more terrestrial form such as D. phoca"--P. 14-15.
15 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references.