A revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider subfamily Phyxelidinae (Araneae, Amaurobiidae). Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 196

Supplemental Materials
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
[New York] : American Museum of Natural History
"The subfamily Phyxelidinae Lehtinen of the Amaurobiidae is diagnosed and revised, and a key to and distribution maps of the 53 valid and 1 undescribed species are provided. The subfamily comprises 12 genera placed in three newly described tribes: Ambohima, new genus, Kulalania new genus, Lamaika, new genus, Malaika Lehtinen, Matundua Lehtinen, Namaquarachne, new genus, Phyxelida Simon, Pongolania, new genus, Themacrys Simon, Vidole Lehtinen, Vytfutia Deeleman-Reinhold, and Xevioso Lehtinen. Vytfutia is newly transferred to the Phyxelidinae. Members of the Phyxelidinae occur in Africa, Madagascar, the eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. The Phyxelidinae is monophyletic and is defined by the following putative synapomorphies: at least some of the basal prolateral setae on the palpal femora of both sexes are enlarged, and in many species the setae are also modified into thorns; the tarsal trichobothria are lost and the metatarsal pattern is reduced to a single subapical dorsal trichobothrium; and the origin of the calamistrum is shifted to the median part of the fourth metatarsus. Previous familial placements of the spiders here placed in the Phyxelidinae are critically evaluated, and it is concluded that the Phyxelidinae are members of the Amaurobiidae. The Amaurobiidae is redefined on the basis of putative synapomorphies as spiders with a divided cribellum which have simple, sclerotized retrolateral and dorsal tibial processes on the male palp (however, the retrolateral process is lost in all Phyxelidinae except Vytfutia). A cladogram for the 54 species of the Phyxelidinae derived through numerical parsimony analysis using Swofford's program PAUP is presented. The following new taxa are proposed: new tribes: Vytfutiini, Vidoleini, and Phyxelidini; new genera: Ambohima (type species Ambohima sublima, new species, from Madagascar), Kulalania (type species Kulalania antiqua, new species, from Kenya), Lamaika (type species Lamaika distincta, new species, from South Africa), Namaquarachne (type species Namaquarachne khoikhoiana, new species, from South Africa), and Pongolania (type species Pongolania pongola, new species, from South Africa); new species: Ambohima sublima and A. pauliani; Kulalania antiqua; Lamaika distincta; Malaika delicatula; Namaquarachne angulata, N. khoikhoiana, N. thaumatula, and N. tropata; Phyxelida abyssinica, P. anatolica, P. apwania, P. carcharata, P. crassibursa, P. eurygyna, P. fanivelona, P. irwini, P. jabalina, P. kipia, P. malagasyana P. pingoana, P. sindanoa, and P. umlima; Pongolania chrysionaria and P. pongola; Themacrys ukhahlamba; Vidole V. helicigyna, V. lyra, and V. sothoana; Xevioso amica, X. aululata, X. colobata, X. jocquei, X. kulufa, X. lichmadina, and X. orthomeles. The following new synonymies are proposed: Haemilla grindleyi Lawrence with Malaika longipes (Purcell); Haemilla profundissima Lawrence with Vidole capensis (Pocock). The synonymies of Auximus schreineri Purcell with Auximus capensis Pocock, and of Haemilla tanganensis Simon and Fage with Amphigyrum nebulosum Tullgren, are rejected. Themacrys stolida Simon is considered a nomen dubium"--P. 3.
206 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 200-202).