Modifiability of schooling behavior in fishes : the role of early experience. American Museum novitates ; no. 2448

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New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History
"More than one thousand Menidia menidia, a schooling fish, were reared from the embryonic stage to the schooling stage under two environmental conditions, namely, together in aquarium tanks and separately in styrofoam cups. Many individually reared fish, the isolates, were given a single exposure with age peers at some point during their development. A number of individually reared fish that had contact showed behavioral modifications when compared with the isolates that were not given such an experience. Schooling behavior was modified among the isolates. Withdrawal behavior, which normally decreases when the schooling tendency is established continued to be seen at a significantly high level during the schooling phase. A new behavior, named lateral turning, was observed. Apparently, as a consequence of the continued high withdrawal rate and the lateral turning, the schooling organization was different among the isolates when compared with the schooling organization of the fish reared together in aquarium tanks"--P. 18.
19 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 18-19).