A revision of the genus Hermacha Simon, 1889 (Mygalomorphae: Entypesidae), in southern Africa with revalidation of Hermachola Hewitt, 1915, and Brachytheliscus Pocock, 1902. (American Museum novitates, no. 3977)
American Museum of Natural History.
The southern African species of the mygalomorph spider genus Hermacha Simon, 1889, are revised. Eight species are redescribed: H. brevicauda Purcell, 1903; H. caudata Simon, 1889; H. evanescens Purcell, 1903; H. fulva Tucker, 1917; H. lanata Purcell, 1902; H. nigrispinosa Tucker, 1917; H. sericea Purcell, 1902; and H. tuckeri Raven, 1985. The female of H. sericea and the male of H. evanescens are described for the first time. Three new species are described: H. septemtrionalis, sp. nov., H. maraisae, sp. nov., and H. montana, sp. nov. On the basis of their genital morphology H. curvipes Purcell, 1902, and H. nigra Tucker, 1917, are considered incertae sedis. Pionothele capensis Zonstein, 2016, was found to be conspecific with H. brevicauda and is synonymized. The genera Brachytheliscus Pocock, 1902, and Hermachola Hewitt, 1915, are revalidated and redescribed. Hermacha capensis (Ausserer, 1871) and H. crudeni Hewitt, 1913, are transferred to Hermachola. Hermachola crudeni (Hewitt, 1913), originally described from a female, and Hermachola grahami Hewitt, 1915, originally described from a male, were found to be conspecific and synonymized. A new species, Hermachola lyleae, sp. nov., is also described. New morphological characters for the diagnoses of these genera and a dichotomous key for all species considered here are provided. Known distributions are mapped and, where available, ecological data are included. With the exception of H. caudata and H. mazoena Hewitt, 1915, all species are endemic to South Africa, but further survey work in neighboring countries is needed. This work substantially improves the taxonomy of this group of spiders and provides a foundation for further investigation of the diversity and relationships of species within the region.
80 pages : color illustrations, map ; 26 cm.
Hermacha septemtrionalis., Hermacha maraisae., Hermacha montana., Hermachola lyleae., Mygalomorphae -- South Africa -- Classification., Mygalomorphae -- South Africa -- Morphology., Spiders -- South Africa -- Classification., Spiders -- South Africa -- Morphology.