The functional morphology of the hind limb of the domestic pigeon, Columba livia. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 144, article 3

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New York : [American Museum of Natural History]
"The present paper presents the results of a study on the functional morphology of hind-limb locomotion in the domestic pigeon, Columba livia. The structure and function of the hind-limb joints is discussed first. The major morphological features of the joint are examined using techniques of microscopic and gross anatomy, and these results are correlated with the kinds and amounts of movement permitted at each joint. Next, a detailed description of the hind-limb muscles is presented. Included in the descriptions are data on origins and insertions, the arrangement of the fibers in relation to aponeuroses of origin and insertion, the relative length of the fibers, the angle of pinnation, and information about the histological composition twitch (fibrillenstruktur) and tonus (felderstruktur) fibers within the muscle. The data in the section on muscle description are then used in conjunction with some basic principles of muscle physiology to arrive at more well-founded conclusions as to the functions of the different muscles. A high-speed motion picture analysis of hind-limb locomotion in the pigeon is then given. Three different gaits (moderate walk, slow walk, and a run) are studied and compared with respect to angular displacements and angular velocities. The important aspects of landing are briefly considered. Finally, the results of the functional analysis of the muscles are combined with those of the motion picture analysis to enable the construction of an activity sequence of the muscles during a walk. Information such as when muscles are active during a step and the kinds of motion observed is considered. Certain features of one-joint and multi-joint muscles and of vertebrate joint structure and function are discussed"--P. 265.
p. 173-268 : ill. ; 27 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 265-268).