Diurnal and seasonal behavior patterns among adults of Protoxaea gloriosa (Hymenoptera, Oxaeidae). American Museum novitates ; no. 2509

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New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History
"Each season, males of Protoxaea gloriosa (Fox) emerge from the ground and establish territories near nectar plants several days before the females appear. The first seasonal emergence of females occurs near midmorning and they immediately seek nectar. During this initial flight mating normally takes place, usually on the nectar flowers. Within 10 days to two weeks most of the females have constructed burrows, are collecting pollen, and are provisioning cells. Activity begins at approximately sunrise when working such plants as Solanum and Cassia and continues for two or three hours before collecting ceases and the burrows are closed (they are opened briefly near midday for an additional nectar flight). When working flowers of Kallstroemia, which do not open until well after sunrise and produce an overabundance of pollen, collecting by some individuals may extend to noon or later. As the season progresses male territories shift with changes in female pollen-collecting patterns but this activity usually peaks near midmorning after most collecting has ceased. By early afternoon, the previously antagonistic males begin to cluster in large aggregations on selected plants where they spend the night. Temperatures in the clusters fluctuate but, during observations through the night, mostly ranged from 20.5°C. to 22.5°C. with air temperatures ranging downward from 23.5°C. to 18°C. When disturbed, the cluster temperatures rose suddenly by 8 to 10°C"--P. [1].
25 p. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 22-25).