Phylogenetic studies in the Papilioninae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 186, article 4

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[New York] : American Museum of Natural History
"Cladistic analyses of relationships among genera in the subfamily Papilioninae reveal that many taxonomic subgroups accepted by previous authors are not monophyletic. Four tribes are recognized: The Troidini and Papilionini are considered to be sister-groups; the genus Teinopalpus is given tribal status as the sister-group to the Troidini/Papilionini; the Graphiini is the sister-group of the other three tribes. An analysis of relationships among the five genera recognized in the Graphiini suggests that Eurytides and Protographium are sister-taxa, and that Iphiclides is the sister-group of a clade which includes Lamproptera and Graphium. Four subgenera within Graphium are recognized: Pazala, Pathysa, Arisbe, and Graphium. Meandrusa is placed in the Papilionini with Papilio, the latter being retained as a single genus. Two subtribes are recognized in the Troidini, the Battiti, containing only Battus, and the Troiditi, containing six genera. Parides consists of two Old World groups, subgenera Atrophaneura and Panosmia (formerly in the genus Atrophaneura), and Neotropical species (subgenus Parides). Subgenus Atrophaneura is equivalent to the nox group of previous authors; Panosmia is equivalent to the latreillei group. Parides is hypothesized to be the sister-genus of Troides, which contains all the 'birdwings.' The genera Ornithoptera, Ripponia, and Trogonoptera are synonymized with Troides. Pachliopta, comprised of Munroe's Pachliopta plus species (subgenus Losaria) formerly in Atrophaneura, is the sister-group of a clade which includes Cressida and Euryades. A single species, Pharmacophagus antenor--removed from Atrophaneura and given generic status--is the sister-group of all other Troiditi. Area cladograms for genera in the Graphiini and Troidini reveal few patterns, but suggest that some taxa are between 50 and 80 million years old. Available character information for the fossil genus Praepapilio is insufficient to determine its phylogenetic placement with respect to extant Papilionidae"--P. [367].
p. [365]-512 : ill. ; 26 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 507-512).