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A study of Asiatic larks. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 97, article 5

Show simple item record Vaurie, Charles. en_US Koelz, Walter, 1895- en_US 2005-10-06T14:40:04Z 2005-10-06T14:40:04Z 1951 en_US
dc.description p. 435-526, [1] leaf of plates : ill., maps ; 27 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references. en_US
dc.description.abstract "This paper is a review of the larks breeding in Iran, Afghanistan, and India. In the case of Alauda, a formal review of all the forms east of the Caucasus is presented. Ten genera, treated in the following order, occur in Asia: Mirafra, Eremopterix, Ammomanes, Alaemon, Calandrella, Melanocorypha, Eremophila, Galerida, Alauda, and Lullula. The generic characters, which are briefly discussed, show much convergence. Twenty-three species breed in Iran, Afghanistan, and India. A key to the species and a table of distribution are given. Habitat preferences are mentioned. Some species have strict ecological requirements, and in these the limiting factor appears to be aridity. In others where the habitat seems more varied it is suggested that habitat preferences vary or may vary geographically. The correlation between the coloration of the plumage and the soil (cryptic coloration) is discussed. A large series of 73 samples from southern Europe, Mediterranean islands, Africa, and India shows that the correlation is strongest in Africa. A comparison of the desert species (Ammomanes deserti) and the semi-desert species (Galerida cristata), common to both Africa and the Iranian region, shows that in Africa these species have many more races and show abrupt variations in coloration. In the Iranian region the variation is conspicuously slight, although the physical factors of the environment are substantially the same and the background as variable as in Africa. It is postulated that the Iranian forms may wander more in search of suitable conditions and that general inconspicuousness in shade rather than close adaptation in hue is the determining factor in the protection against predation. The experiments of Dice are cited. The species characters are discussed. Differences in the wing formula and in the pattern of the plumage appear to be excellent species characters. A number of closely related forms that have been treated as conspecific are shown conclusively to be separate species. In every instance where these species are separated by a difference in the wing formula or shape of the wing they are found also to overlap and breed in the same regions, or, in one instance where there is no overlap, they are separated by abrupt differences in both the wing formula and the pattern of the plumage. In some cases all three factors are present. The forms hitherto treated as conspecific but thus separated are: Ammomanes phoenicurus and A. cincturus, Calandrella cinerea and C. acutirostris, probably C. rufescens and C. leucophaea, Melanocorypha bimaculata and M. calandra, and Alauda arvensis and A. gulgula. Molt and plumages are discussed. Larks show several types of molt. In most species there is only one molt a year, a complete postnuptial and a complete postjuvenal molt, and first winter birds are indistinguishable from adults. But in other species the postjuvenal molt is partial and is limited to that of the body feathers. In other species there is a double annual molt, a complete postnuptial and postjuvenal molt and a partial prenuptial molt, very full or limited to the feathers of the head. In still other species the first winter plumage differs from that of the adult"--P. 526. en_US
dc.format.extent 21647611 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York : [American Museum of Natural History] en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ; v. 97, article 5 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QH1 .A4 vol.97, art.5, 1951 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Larks -- Asia en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Molting. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Feathers. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Birds -- -- Asia, Central en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Birds -- -- South Asia en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Birds -- Middle East en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Koelz, Walter, -- 1895- -- Natural history collections. en_US
dc.title A study of Asiatic larks. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 97, article 5 en_US
dc.title.alternative Asiatic larks en_US
dc.type text en_US

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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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