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Systematic revision of the sand scorpions, genus Buthacus Birula, 1908 (Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837) of the Levant, with redescription of Buthacus arenicola (Simon, 1885) from Algeria and Tunisia (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 450)

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dc.contributor.author Cain, Shlomo
dc.contributor.author Gefen, Eran
dc.contributor.author Prendini, Lorenzo
dc.date.accessioned 2021-04-27T19:48:36Z
dc.date.available 2021-04-27T19:48:36Z
dc.date.issued 2021-04-27
dc.identifier.issn 0003-0090
dc.identifier.uri http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/7265
dc.description 134 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 26 cm en_US
dc.description.abstract Scorpions of the genus Buthacus Birula, 1908 (Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837), commonly known as "sand scorpions," are widespread in the sandy deserts of the Palearctic, from West Africa to India. Although many new species of Buthacus were described in recent years, no modern revision exists for the genus and the limits of many infrageneric taxa remain unclear. The present contribution addresses the species of Buthacus recorded from the Levant, defined here as the region of the Middle East including Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt). Prior to this study, five species and subspecies, including several synonyms, were recognized from the region. Based on extensive new collections, a reassessment of the morphology (including multivariate statistical analysis), and a phylogenetic analysis of morphological and DNA sequence data, published elsewhere, seven species of Buthacus are now recognized from the Levant, raising the number of species in the genus to 30. Three new species are described: Buthacus amitaii, sp. nov., endemic to Israel; Buthacus arava, sp. nov., endemic to Israel and Jordan; and Buthacus levyi, sp. nov., endemic to Egypt, Israel, and perhaps Libya. Buthacus arenicola (Simon, 1885) is redescribed and restricted to northeastern Algeria and central Tunisia, and Buthacus leptochelys (Ehrenberg, 1829) redescribed and restricted to Egypt, Sudan, and perhaps Libya. Buthacus armasi Lourenço, 2013, stat. rev., from southern Algeria, and Buthacus spatzi (Birula, 1911), stat. rev., from southern Tunisia and western Libya, are revalidated, and Buthacus fuscata Pallary, 1929, stat. nov. et stat. rev., from southern Algeria, revalidated and elevated to the rank of species. Buthacus nitzani Levy et al., 1973, stat. nov., currently restricted to Israel but probably present in the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt), is elevated to the rank of species. Buthacus tadmorensis (Simon, 1892), stat. rev., recorded from Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey, and Buthacus yotvatensis Levy et al., 1973, stat. rev., endemic to Israel and Jordan, are redescribed and revalidated. Three new synonyms are presented: Androctonus (Leiurus) macrocentrus Ehrenberg, 1828 = Buthacus leptochelys (Ehrenberg, 1829), syn. nov.; Buthus pietschmanni Penther, 1912 = Buthacus tadmorensis (Simon, 1892), syn. nov.; Buthacus granosus Borelli, 1929 = Buthacus leptochelys (Ehrenberg, 1829), syn. nov. Buthacus arenicola and the seven species of Buthacus occurring in the Levant are diagnosed and illustrated to modern standards, with updated distribution maps. A list of the currently recognized species of Buthacus, and a key to identification of the species occurring in the Levant are also presented. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Museum of Natural History. en_US
dc.relation
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History;no.450.
dc.subject Buthacus -- Middle East -- Classification. en_US
dc.subject Scorpions -- Middle East -- Classification. en_US
dc.subject Scorpions -- Phylogeny. en_US
dc.subject Scorpions -- Morphology. en_US
dc.subject Arachnida -- Phylogeny. en_US
dc.subject Arachnida -- Morphology. en_US
dc.title Systematic revision of the sand scorpions, genus Buthacus Birula, 1908 (Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837) of the Levant, with redescription of Buthacus arenicola (Simon, 1885) from Algeria and Tunisia (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 450) en_US


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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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