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Morphological and geographic definitions of the Sulawesian shrew rats Echiothrix leucura and E. centrosa (Muridae, Murinae), and description of a new species of sucking louse (Phthiraptera, Anoplura). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 391)

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dc.contributor.author Musser, Guy G.
dc.contributor.author Durden, Lance A.
dc.date.accessioned 2014-08-11T15:22:23Z
dc.date.available 2014-08-11T15:22:23Z
dc.date.issued 2014-07-25
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2246/6547
dc.description 87 pages : illustrations (some color), map ; 26 cm. en_US
dc.description.abstract Among the 15 known genera of murine rodents endemic to the island of Sulawesi, is the shrew rat genus Echiothrix. Physically large (length of head and body = 182-235 mm; weight = 215-310 g) with a bicolored tail typically longer than head and body (100%-135% of head and body length), elongate hind feet (48-55 mm), large ears (31-35 mm), long and thin muzzle, spinous fur, and tiny molars relative to size of skull (length of molar row = 12%-13% of occipitonasal length), Echiothrix was named and described in 1867 and through the years has been treated as monotypic or containing up to three species. Results from analyses of morphometric traits derived primarily from cranial and dental measurements document the presence of two species. Echiothrix leucura (Gray, 1867) is restricted to the northern peninsular mainland east of the Gorontalo region (00°31ʹ N, 123° 03ʹ E). This distribution is concordant with that of four other murids endemic to the northeastern tip of the northern peninsula: Bunomys fratrorum, Taeromys taerae, Rattus xanthurus, and R. marmosurus. Echiothrix centrosa Miller and Hollister, 1921 (Echiothix brevicula Miller and Hollister, 1921, is a synonym), is documented by specimens from the northern peninsula west of the Gorontalo region and in the central portion of the island; 19 other murine species are also known only from the core of Sulawesi. Whether the range of E. centrosa extends to the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern peninsulas is at present unknown. Echiothrix leucura has a more elongate skull compared with E. centrosa (greater lengths of skull, rostrum, diastema, and bony palate), a wider interorbital region, larger braincase, narrower bony palate and mesopterygoid fossa, shorter incisive foramina, and appreciably larger molars; the two species also differ in frequencies of particular molar cusps and cusplets. Both species of Echiothrix are nocturnal, terrestrial, and occupy habitats in tropical lowland evergreen rain forest. Natural history observations made in the field for Echiothrix centrosa show it to be primarily vermivorous; other natural history observations derived from field work in central Sulawesi are provided. One aspect of that natural history is the ectoparasitic load borne by E. centrosa. This shrew rat is host to at least four species of ticks (Haemaphysalis kadarsani, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Haemaphysalis sp. and Amblyomma sp.), a tiny fur mite (Listrophoroides echiothrix), mesostigmatid mites belonging to the genus Laelaps, currently undetermined chiggers, a flea (Farhangia quattuordecimdentata), and a new species of sucking louse described herein as Polyplax beaucournui. This louse has tibiotarsal claws adapted for grasping slender soft hairs in the pelage and not the wide host spines; female lice also attach their eggs only to these slender hairs. The closest relative of Echiothrix is probably Paucidentomys vermidax, another Sulawesian endemic shrew rat that is also vermivorous but lacks molars and has been collected only in montane forests. The present report documents morphological and distributional limits of species in Echiothrix, places one of those species in an ecological and parasitological landscape, and generally contributes to knowledge covering endemic murid species diversity and identifying unique zoogeographical areas on Sulawesi. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Museum of Natural History. en_US
dc.relation
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 391. en_US
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.5531/sd.sp.6
dc.subject Echiothrix leucura. en_US
dc.subject Echiothrix centrosa. en_US
dc.subject Echiothrix. en_US
dc.subject Polyplax beaucournui. en_US
dc.subject Shrew rats. en_US
dc.subject Anoplura. en_US
dc.subject Lice. en_US
dc.subject Parasites. en_US
dc.subject Parasitic insects. en_US
dc.subject Celebes (Indonesia) en_US
dc.subject Indonesia. en_US
dc.title Morphological and geographic definitions of the Sulawesian shrew rats Echiothrix leucura and E. centrosa (Muridae, Murinae), and description of a new species of sucking louse (Phthiraptera, Anoplura). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 391) en_US
dc.title.alternative Echiothrix leucura and E. centrosa. en_US


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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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