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A new brontothere (Brontotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Eocene of the Ily Basin of Kazakstan and a phylogeny of Asian "horned" brontotheres. American Museum novitates ; no. 3439

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dc.contributor.author Mihlbachler, Matthew Christian, 1972- en_US
dc.contributor.author Lucas, Spencer G.
dc.contributor.author Emry, Robert J.
dc.contributor.author Bayshashov, Bolat.
dc.date.accessioned 2005-10-06T16:38:53Z
dc.date.available 2005-10-06T16:38:53Z
dc.date.issued 2004 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2246/2804
dc.description 43 p. : ill., map ; 26 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 33-36). en_US
dc.description.abstract A new genus and species of 'horned' brontothere, Aktautitan hippopotamopus, from the Ily Basin of Kazakstan is described from three skulls and nearly complete postcranial material. This material occurs in fluvio-lacustrine red beds of the upper part of the Eocene (Irdinmanhan) Kyzylbulak Formation at Aktau Mountain. Trackways occurring in the overlying layers are also attributed to this new brontothere. Additionally, several misleading problems in the taxonomy of Asian horned brontotheres are addressed. We conclude that Protitan khaitshinus Yanovskaya, 1980 is a junior objective synonym of Metatitan relictus Granger and Gregory, 1943. Protitan reshetovi Yanovskaya, 1980 is removed from the genus Protitan and possibly belongs within Metatitan. Brachydiastematherium transylvanicum Böckh and Maty, 1876, the only bona fide European brontothere, known from a single partial mandible, is morphologically consistent with Metatitan Granger and Gregory, 1943. Although B. transylvanicum is known from very fragmentary material, it is possible that Metatitan is a junior synonym of Brachydiastematherium. The first cladistic phylogeny of middle and late Eocene Asian horned brontotheres was constructed with 40 characters and 17 taxa. Aktautitan, Metatitan, Brachydiastematherium, and Embolotherium form a monophyletic clade, with Aktautitan hippopotamopus as the most basal member of this clade. Within this clade, there are two monophyletic trichotomies: a Metatitan relictus, M. primus, Brachydiastematherium transylvanicum clade and a 'Metatitan' progressus, Embolotherium andrewsi, E. grangeri clade. The cladogram topology suggests that the elevated frontonasal horns shared by Aktautitan and Metatitan represent the ancestral morphology of the bizarre 'battering-ram' of Embolotherium. We extend the subfamily name Embolotheriinae to include these taxa. The unusually shortened distal limb segments of A. hippopotamopus resemble those of a phylogenetically disparate group of large ungulates that have convergently evolved hippolike limb proportions. We conclude that these limb proportions probably do not indicate a semiaquatic lifestyle, as had been previously surmised. en_US
dc.format.extent 2407642 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries American Museum novitates ; no. 3439 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QL1 .A436 no.3439, 2004 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Aktautitan hippopotamopus. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Perissodactyla, Fossil -- Kazakhstan. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Perissodactyla, Fossil -- Ili River Region (China and Kazakhstan) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Mammals, Fossil -- Kazakhstan. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Mammals, Fossil -- Ili River Region (China and Kazakhstan) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Eocene -- Kazakhstan. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Eocene -- Ili River Region (China and Kazakhstan) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Kazakhstan. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Ili River Region (China and Kazakhstan) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Brontotheriidae -- Asia -- Phylogeny. en_US
dc.title A new brontothere (Brontotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Eocene of the Ily Basin of Kazakstan and a phylogeny of Asian "horned" brontotheres. American Museum novitates ; no. 3439 en_US
dc.type text en_US


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  • American Museum Novitates
    Novitates (Latin for "new acquaintances"), published continuously and numbered consecutively since 1921, are short papers that contain descriptions of new forms and reports in zoology, paleontology, and geology. New numbers are published at irregular intervals.

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