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Fishes from the uplands and intermontane basins of Guatemala : revisionary studies and comparative geography. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 162, article 5

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dc.contributor.author Rosen, Donn Eric, 1929- en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2005-10-06T15:10:36Z
dc.date.available 2005-10-06T15:10:36Z
dc.date.issued 1979 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1281
dc.description p. 269-375 : ill., maps ; 26 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 374-375). en_US
dc.description.abstract "Continuing studies of the fish fauna of the karst regions of Guatemala along the northern foothills of the sierras have revealed the presence of about two dozen species in thirteen genera and nine families in isolated basins with subterranean outlets. Eleven to thirteen of these species, mostly fishes of the family Poeciliidae, are endemic to the isolated basins; five have been described previously. Among poeciliid fishes, members of the genera Heterandria and Xiphophorus are best represented in the karst regions. Because of similarities in their geography the two genera are reviewed together: nine species of Heterandria are recognized, of which six are new (H. attenuata, H. litoperas, H. obliqua, H. anzuetoi, H. cataractae, H. dirempta); 15 species of Xiphophorus are recognized, of which none is new, although numerous taxa previously recognized as subspecies are treated here as species. Taxonomic decisions concerning recognized species of Xiphophorus are based on a reconsideration of various current species concepts from which it is concluded that the 'biological species' should be rejected as a conceptual tool and the 'subspecies' as a methodological one. Earlier taxonomic accounts of Heterandria and Xiphophorus by the author are found to be unacceptable because they were not rigorously and explicitly based on a search for shared derived characters (synapomorphies). Many of the subgroups recognized in those prior accounts are grade groups based merely on the failure of the included taxa to possess the derived defining characters of other subgroups, therefore suggesting, that they were, in fact defined unacceptably by shared primitive characters (symplesiomorphies). As newly revised on the basis of proposed synapomorphy schemes, and the derivative cladograms of relationship, various members of Heterandria and Xiphophorus are shown to possess a number of cladistic similarities in relation to geography: 1. Mexican and Central American species together form a natural group separated from their sister group to the north by a gap, the southern boundary of which is somewhat to the north of Tampico, Mexico. 2. In Middle America the sister group of a group including many southern Mexican and Central American species is in the region around Tampico. 3. A relatively plesiomorphic species occupies two separate isolated karst basins along the western foothills of the sierras in Guatemala. 4. Less plesiomorphic forms occupy the two southernmost Guatemalan rivers that drain into the Gulf of Honduras as well as Atlantic coastal drainages of Honduras. 5. The most apomorphous sister pair of species includes a widespread species that extends along coastal regions of southern Mexico and parts of the Yucatan Peninsula and a species that is confined to an easterly karst basin. 6. Putative hybrids are present between the distributions of the westerly karst species and the widespread form. A discussion of cladistic theory in relation to hybridization suggests how the cladistic interrelationships of putative parents can resolve whether or not intergradation between species in nature is to be considered secondary (i.e., due to the effects of hybridization). The geographic similarities between Heterandria and Xiphophorus are compared by converting their cladograms of taxa into cladograms of areas. In terms of probability theory, it is concluded that the congruence of their area cladograms at a very high confidence level indicates that the two genera shared, in part, a common history in Middle America"--P. 271. en_US
dc.format.extent 29714694 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York : American Museum of Natural History en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ; v. 162, article 5 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QH1 .A4 vol.162, art.5, 1979 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Heterandria en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Xiphophorus en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Freshwater fishes -- Guatemala en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Freshwater fishes -- Guatemala -- Geographical distribution. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fishes -- Guatemala en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fishes -- Guatemala -- Geographical distribution. en_US
dc.title Fishes from the uplands and intermontane basins of Guatemala : revisionary studies and comparative geography. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 162, article 5 en_US
dc.type text en_US


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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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