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The phylogeny of termite genera based on imago-worker mandibles. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 95, article 2

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dc.contributor.author Ahmad, Muzaffer, 1920- en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2005-10-06T15:06:56Z
dc.date.available 2005-10-06T15:06:56Z
dc.date.issued 1950 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1252
dc.description p. 41-86 : ill. ; 27 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 85-86). en_US
dc.description.abstract "One. The phylogeny of 139 out of a total of 142 genera and subgenera of termites based primarily upon the imago-worker mandibles has been studied. 2. The imago-worker mandibles of termites provide a conservative morphological character significant for the study of phylogeny. 3. The families Kalotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae have a relatively fixed mandibular pattern in the imago and worker castes. The Hodotermitidae and the Termitidae exhibit a great variation in the imago-worker mandibles. The variation of this character within a genus is negligible. 4. In the main, this study corroborates the termite classification proposed by Holmgren. In some cases, however, he has misinterpreted the phylogeny because of convergent adaptation. The study of the imago-worker mandibles has cleared some of these errors. 5. The subfamily Serritermitinae, hitherto included under the family Rhinotermitidae, is transferred to the family Termitidae. 6. It is concluded that the Rhinotermitidae arose from a stock which had Archotermopsis-like imago-worker mandibles and possessed ocelli and not from the Kalotermitidae as suggested by Holmgren and Hare. 7. There are several phylogenetic lineages in the Nasutitermitinae, and Holmgren's subgenera are best raised to generic rank. 8. Pseudomicrotermes, whose exact relationship has thus far remained obscure, is now assigned to the subfamily Armitermitinae in which it forms a distinct group with Eremotermes and Synhamitermes. 9. There are several instances of convergence in termite evolution. The phragmotic head in the Kalotermitidae has evolved three times. The nasute soldier in the Nasutitermitinae has arisen twice independently. The evolution of the asymmetrical soldier mandibles in the Termitinae has occurred in two distantly related groups of genera. 10. Zoogeography has been of some help in understanding the phylogenetic relationships of several genera. The distribution of some primitive termites belonging to the families Mastotermitidae and Hodotermitidae conforms to Matthew's theory of distribution of primitive forms. 11. The worker caste, usually considered of little importance in termite taxonomy, can be of great value for generic identification, particularly by the study of its mandibles. 12. A discussion of the concepts of homology, conservative characters, convergence, Dollo's rule of irreversibility of evolution, regressive evolution, and the persistence of genes and gene patterns has been included"--P. 80. en_US
dc.format.extent 12076748 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York : [American Museum of Natural History] en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ; v. 95, article 2 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QH1 .A4 vol.95, art.2, 1950 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Termites -- Phylogeny. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Termites -- Anatomy. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Mandible. en_US
dc.title The phylogeny of termite genera based on imago-worker mandibles. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 95, article 2 en_US
dc.type text en_US


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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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