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A review of the pre-Pliocene penguins of New Zealand. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 144, article 5

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dc.contributor.author Simpson, George Gaylord, 1902- en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2005-10-06T14:52:09Z
dc.date.available 2005-10-06T14:52:09Z
dc.date.issued 1971 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1086
dc.description p. 321-378 : ill., map ; 27 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 376-378). en_US
dc.description.abstract "The first fossil penguin to be made known, Palaeeudyptes antarcticus, was described from New Zealand by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1859. The many other pre-Pliocene penguins found in New Zealand after that date were monographed by Professor B.J. Marples in 1952. They are here systematically reviewed, with references to previous illustrations and substantive publications, and new data and illustrations are provided. Pre-Pliocene penguins have been found in New Zealand at ten localities or collecting areas. The generically unidentifiable specimen from Gore Bay, previously considered to be from the early Eocene and the oldest known penguin, is in fact Oligocene or early Miocene in age. The oldest known penguins are Pachydyptes ponderosus, Palaeeudyptes marplesi, and Palaeeudyptes sp. from the late Eocene. Other known New Zealand penguins range through the Oligocene and perhaps early Miocene. Within the range late Eocene-early Miocene many specimens are of undeterminable precise age. The reported great range, Kaiatan-Waitakian for the single species Palaeeudyptes antarcticus is not substantiated. The known pre-Pliocene New Zealand penguins are classified in six genera, Palaeeudyptes, Pachydyptes, Platydyptes, Archaeospheniscus, Duntroonornis, and Korora, with nine named species, of which ?Platydyptes marplesi is here new. Among fairly numerous specimens referred to Palaeeudyptes, only the two specific holotypes are considered definitely identifiable to species on the basis of present knowledge. It is unlikely that any of the known genera were ancestral to Recent penguins. Previous attempts at subfamily classification are unsatisfactory, and subfamilies are abandoned here. The New Zealand forms show some, but limited resemblances to the penguin faunas of each of the other three regions where fossils of this family have been found; southern Australia, Seymour Island, and Argentine Patagonia. The largest fossil penguin, Pachydyptes ponderosus, was probably at least 50 per cent taller than the largest Recent penguin and probably weighed about 100 kilograms. In general, known fossil penguins average considerably larger than Recent penguins in the same latitudes. Recent penguins tend to be larger in higher latitudes or colder environments, but there are adaptations to climate other than size and these may be more crucial. Eocene-Miocene penguins did not follow the size-temperature regression of Recent penguins and must have had dissimilar heat regulation. However, all the basic locomotory adaptations of the Spheniscidae were virtually complete in the late Eocene, and the origin of the family must have been much earlier. No earlier, possibly relevant fossils occur in the extremely poor fossil record of birds in the Southern Hemisphere"--P. 376. en_US
dc.format.extent 28689550 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York : [American Museum of Natural History] en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ; v. 144, article 5 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QH1 .A4 vol.144, art.5, 1971 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Penguins, Fossil -- New Zealand. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Birds, Fossil -- New Zealand. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Tertiary -- New Zealand. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- New Zealand. en_US
dc.title A review of the pre-Pliocene penguins of New Zealand. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 144, article 5 en_US
dc.type text en_US


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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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