Browsing by Author "Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton)"
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ItemAnatomy of Mahakala omnogovae (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae), Tögrögiin Shiree, Mongolia. (American Museum novitates, no. 3722)(American Museum of Natural History., 2011-10-05) Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Pol, Diego.; Norell, Mark.; Mongolian-American Museum Paleontological Project.; Mongolyn Shinzhlėkh Ukhaany Akademi.The dromaeosaurid Mahakala omnogovae is known from a unique specimen from the late Cretaceous deposits of the Djadokhta Formation at Tögrögiin Shiree, Ömnögov Aimag, Mongolia. The holotype specimen is comprised of a well-preserved but partial skull and a nearly complete postcranial skeleton. Mahakala omnogovae is included in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coelurosauria using a dataset, which reflects a greatly expanded character set and taxon-sampling regime. Several interesting features of Mahakala omnogovae have implications for deinonychosaurian and avialan character evolution and for understanding patterns of size variation and size change within paravian theropods. These morphologies include the shape of the iliac blade, the triangular obturator process of the ischium, and the evolution of the subarctometatarsalian condition. We present an expanded diagnosis of Mahakala omnogovae which included following unique combination of characters (autapomorphies noted by *): a ledgelike depression at the confluence of metotic strut and posterior tympanic recess on the anterior face of the paroccipital process*, a posteriorly tapering scapula; a shortened forelimb (humerus 50% femur length); a strongly compressed and anteroposteriorly broad ulna tapering posteriorly to a narrow edge*; elongate lateral crest on the posterodistal femur*; anterior caudal vertebrae with subhorizontal, laterally directed prezygapophyses*; a prominent supratrochanteric process; and the absence of a cuppedicus fossa. ItemA large alvarezsaurid from the late Cretaceous of Mongolia. (American Museum novitates, no. 3648)(2009) Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Norell, Mark.We report a new alvarezsaurid, Kol ghuva, from the late Cretaceous of Mongolia that demonstrates that the clade was not restricted to small taxa (~3-15 kg). The specimen was found at the Ukhaa Tolgod locality, which has previously produced only a single diminutive alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti. Although known only from a well-preserved right foot, the new taxon is diagnosable by the following combination of characters: extensor grooves on digit IV phalanges; robust flexor tubercle on pedal unguals; MT III does not reach ankle; accessory dorsomedial flange absent on the medial side of the distal end of the MT II; MT II shorter than MT IV; and MT III extends higher proximally than other alvarezsaurids (more than K total metatarsus length). The new taxon provides additional insight into the diversity of this clade and the dinosaurian assemblage of Ukhaa Tolgod. ItemMorphology of the late Cretaceous crocodylomorph Shamosuchus djadochtaensis and a discussion of neosuchian phylogeny as related to the origin of Eusuchia. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 324)(2009) Pol, Diego.; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Norell, Mark.We describe a new specimen of the fossil crocodyliform taxon Shamosuchus djadochtaensis from the late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation. The new specimen consists of an almost complete skull found in association with postcranial material. Because it is considerably more complete than the holotype, the new specimen permits proper diagnosis of Shamosuchus djadochtaensis and offers new information for exploring its phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic analysis conducted here improves taxon sampling of neosuchian crocodyliforms with respect to previous approaches to crocodyliform systematics and reveals that Shamosuchus djadochtaensis bears important information toward an understanding of the relationships of advanced neosuchians and the evolutionary origin of Eusuchia. Shamosuchus djadochtaensis is found to be the sister group of Rugosuchus nonganensis, comprising an Asian clade diagnosed by the presence of a sagittal ridge on the dorsal surface of the frontal, confluent openings for the exit of cranial nerves IX-XI, a posterior region of the palatine bar between suborbital fenestra that is flared posteriorly, and a longitudinal ridge on the lateral surface of the angular. This clade is inferred to be the sister group of Eusuchia, to the exclusion of Bernissartia fagesii and the Glen Rose form, based on the absence of an acute anterior tip of the frontal that wedges between the nasals, the presence of rodlike neural spines in the posterior cervical vertebrae, procoelous cervical vertebrae, and the presence of hypapophyses in the three anteriormost dorsal vertebrae. Incorporating the new information into the phylogenetic analysis indicates the decoupled nature of the evolutionary history of procoely in different regions of the vertebral column and the eusuchian type of palate, both traditionally considered as diagnostic of Eusuchia. All these features have complex evolutionary histories with several cases of convergences and reversals. Finally, a review of all the available evidence on the diversity of advanced neosuchians suggests this group achieved a worldwide distribution and a remarkable morphological diversity, pushing their evolutionary origins back to the Jurassic. ItemA new dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Coelurosauria) from Khulsan, Central Mongolia (American Museum novitates, no. 3982)(American Museum of Natural History., 2021-11-08) Napoli, James G.; Ruebenstahl, Alexander; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Norell, MarkDromaeosaurid theropods represent a rare but important clade of nonavialan dinosaurs. Their close evolutionary relationship to modern birds has placed them at the center of paleontological research for the last several decades. Herein we describe a new species of dromaeosaurid—Kuru kulla, gen. et sp. nov.—based on a partial skeleton from the Late Cretaceous Khulsan locality (Barun Goyot Formation) of Mongolia. This species is diagnosed by several autapomorphies within Dromaeosauridae, including a sharp groove anterior and ventral to the narial fossa on the premaxilla, a posterolaterally directed hornlet on the posterodorsal process of the lacrimal, a deep surangular bearing two surangular foramina, and anteriorly displaced pleurocoels on the dorsal centra. The taxon is further characterized by a unique combination of characters, including a mediolaterally narrow metatarsal II, serrations on both carinae of the dentary teeth, hyposphenes that are widely separated but joined by a web of bone, and a lacrimal with a poorly developed boss on its lateral surface. Phylogenetic analysis finds Kuru kulla to be the sister taxon of Adasaurus mongoliensis, from the slightly later Nemegt Formation, with which it is united by three synapomorphies: a posterior surangular foramen that is ~30% the depth of the surangular, absence of a fourth trochanter of the femur, and thoracic centra that are markedly longer than their midpoint widths. The recognition of this taxon has important implications for common assumptions of Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem structure and adds new data to a recently recognized pattern in dromaeosaurid faunal composition among Late Cretaceous localities in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China). ItemA new dromaeosaurid from the Late Cretaceous Khulsan locality of Mongolia (American Museum novitates, no. 3965)(American Museum of Natural History., 2021-01-13) Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Montanari, Shaena A.; Norell, MarkA new dromaeosaurid dinosaur, Shri devi, from the Late Cretaceous deposit of the Barun Goyot Formation at Khulsan, Mongolia, is described here. The Barun Goyot Formation (herein referred to as the Barun Goyot) is stratigraphically intermediate between the overlying Nemegt Formation and the underlying Djadokhta Formation, where much of the dromaeosaurid diversity has been reported to date. Sediments of the Barun Goyot are typically considered Upper Campanian in age. Although dromaeosaurid remains have been noted to occur in the Barun Goyot for decades, descriptive and taxonomic work has never been completed for the material. The holotype specimen (IGM 100/980) consists of a partially articulated individual preserving the right hind limb; left tibiotarsus; pelvis; and adjacent cervical, dorsal, and caudal vertebrae. IGM 100/980 is referable to a clade with Velociraptor based on the presence of a distinct ambiens tubercle located proximally on the anterior face of the pubis, a well-developed anterior tuberosity proximally located on the ischium, and a rounded longitudinal ischial ridge. It is distinguishable from V. mongoliensis based on a weak fourth trochanter (shared with all other dromaeosaurids) and deep anterior pedicular fossae in the cervical vertebrae; epipophyses in the last four cervicals are not raised but are instead represented by rugose circular scars. A suite of axial and appendicular characters are diagnostic for the new species. New discoveries including Shri devi allow for an improved understanding of dromaeosaurid anatomy, as well as the temporal and regional variation of the dromaeosaurid fauna of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China), during the Late Cretaceous. ItemA new dromaeosaurid theropod from Ukhaa Tolgod (Ömnögov, Mongolia) ; American Museum novitates, no. 3545(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2006) Norell, Mark.; Clark, James Matthew, 1956-; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Makovicky, Peter J.; Barsbold, Rinchin.; Rowe, Timothy, 1953-We describe a new dromaeosaurid theropod from the Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia. The new taxon, Tsaagan mangas, consists of a well-preserved skull and cervical series. This specimen marks only the second dromaeosaurid taxon from a formation that has otherwise yielded numerous specimens of Velociraptor mongoliensis, and Tsaagan mangas is the only dromaeosaurid known from Ukhaa Tolgod beyond sporadic occurrences of isolated teeth. Tsaagan mangas differs from other dromaeosaurids in the possession of a straight, untwisted, and pendulous paroccipital process, a large and anteriorly located maxillary fenestra, and a jugal-squamosal contact that excludes the postorbital from the margin of the infratemporal fenestra. The phylogenetic affinities of Tsaagan mangas are determined through a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coelurosauria, confirming its position within Dromaeosauridae. This new specimen, coupled with CT imaging, provides new information on the skull and braincase anatomy of dromaeosaurids. ItemOsteology of a North American goniopholidid (Eutretauranosuchus delfsi) and palate evolution in Neosuchia. (American Museum novitates, no. 3783)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-10-23) Pritchard, Adam C., 1987-; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Allen, Eric R. (Eric Randall); Norell, Mark.The goniopholidid Eutretauranosuchus delfsi is currently known from two skulls from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of Colorado. Here we present a detailed osteology for a third Eutretauranosuchus delfsi specimen (AMNH FARB 570), consisting of a skull and fragmentary postcranium from Bone Cabin Quarry, Wyoming (Morrison Formation). Additional preparation, computed tomography (CT), and three-dimensional processing of CT images reveal matrix-covered structures on AMNH FARB 570, provide new information on goniopholidid cranial anatomy, and allow for the first description of an articulated North American goniopholidid braincase. These new data, along with restudy of the palatal anatomy in Eutretauranosuchus, provide valuable insight into the phylogenetic history of goniopholidid crocodyliforms. The skull of AMNH FARB 570 is extremely similar to other specimens of E. delfsi and Amphicotylus spp., especially in details of the architecture of the palate. In these Morrison Formation goniopholidids the secondary palate is incomplete such that the nasopharyngeal passage has no ventral floor. Additionally, there is a complex septum, constructed from the vomers and pterygoid, which extends ventrally near to the plane of the secondary palate. Characters diagnosing Eutretauranosuchus delfsi include: (1) an elongate, platyrostral skull; (2) a prominent depression on the posterolateral surface of the alveolar process of the maxilla; (3) minimal lateral undulation of the maxillary tooth row; (4) broadening of the nasals anterior to the prefrontals; (5) nasals that do not contact external nares; (6) a broad, flat interfenestral bar with raised rims along the supratemporal fenestrae; (7) a nasopharyngeal septum formed from diverging vomeral processes anteriorly and a midline pterygoid process posteriorly (also in Amphicotylus lucasii, AMNH FARB 5782); and (8) a vomeral septal complex that forms an X shape in cross section. Based on a revised phylogenetic analysis of 88 crocodylomorph taxa, a novel phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed in which a clade of Calsoyasuchus + Sunosuchus is sister to a clade of Goniopholis baryglyphaeus + (Goniopholis simus + (Amphicotylus lucasii + Eutretauranosuchus delfsi)). Examination of secondary palate characters in Goniopholididae suggests that this group "experimented" with changes to the bony secondary palate a number of times, resulting in morphologies not seen other mesoeucrocodylian clades. ItemThe osteology of Balaur bondoc, an island-dwelling dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the late Cretaceous of Romania. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 374)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-02-13) Brusatte, Stephen.; Vremir, Mátyás.; Csiki-Sava, Zoltán.; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Watanabe, Akinobu, 1987-; Erickson, Gregory M.; Norell, Mark.The Hațeg Island fauna of the terminal late Cretaceous (ca. 71-65 million years ago) of Romania is one of the most unusual dinosaur assemblages in the global fossil record. It has long been recognized that many herbivorous dinosaurs from the Hațeg fauna were dwarfed, morphologically aberrant, and/or primitive relative to mainland contemporaries, and these taxa are often considered examples of the so-called island effect: the evolutionary phenomenon by which island-dwelling species are often dwarfed and anatomically modified. Very little, however, is known about the carnivorous dinosaurs that inhabited Hațeg Island, and it is unclear whether they were also dwarfed, aberrant, or primitive. In 2009, the discovery of the first substantially complete theropod from the late Cretaceous of Europe, the holotype of the Romanian dromaeosaurid Balaur bondoc, provided the first clear glimpse at an island-dwelling carnivorous dinosaur. Here we describe and figure this remarkably preserved skeleton in detail. We provide detailed descriptions and photographs of individual bones, and make extensive comparisons with other dromaeosaurids (and other derived coelurosaurian theropods). This monographic description provides further evidence that Balaur is an unusual derived dromaeosaurid, closely related to Velociraptor, with a remarkably modified hand and foot skeleton, including a stocky and heavily fused distal hind limb, a double set of hyperextensible pedal claws, and a fused and atrophied hand, which are otherwise unknown among derived coelurosaurian theropods. We present an updated diagnosis of Balaur based on additional preparation of the holotype, comparisons with other dromaeosaurids, and careful consideration of postmortem crushing. Histological techniques demonstrate that both the holotype and a referred specimen of Balaur, which is approximately 50% larger than the holotype and from a separate locality, belong to mature individuals. Therefore, we remove the referred specimen from Balaur bondoc and conservatively consider it Balaur sp. We present an updated assessment of the phylogenetic relationships of Balaur based on a comprehensive new coelurosaurian cladistics dataset, which corroborates the close relationship between Balaur, Velociraptor, Deinonychus, Adasaurus, and Saurornitholestes. We review the fossil record of European late Cretaceous theropods and show that other specimens from the late Cretaceous of Romania (including the holotype of Elopteryx), France, and Hungary either do not belong to Balaur (due to the lack of Balaur autapomorphies) or cannot be compared to Balaur because of a lack of overlapping material. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic history of European terminal Cretaceous dinosaur faunas and comment on the extreme morphological specializations of Balaur. We conclude that the phylogenetic position of Balaur, a derived dromaeosaurid closely related to late Cretaceous Laurasian taxa, is inconsistent with previous hypotheses of long-term geographic endemicity of the Romanian island faunas, but argue that the aberrant Bauplan of Balaur is similar to that seen in some living and recently extinct mammals and thus likely due to the "island effect." ItemPennaraptoran theropod dinosaurs : past progress and new frontiers. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 440)(American Museum of Natural History., 2020-08-21) Pittman, Michael, 1985-; Xu, Xing, 1969-; O'Connor, Jingmai.; Field, Daniel J.; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Ma, Waisum.; Makovicky, Peter J.; Tse, Edison.; Norell, Mark.; Pei, Rui.; Pol, Diego.; Goloboff, Pablo A.; Ding, Anyang.; Upchurch, Paul.; Berv, Jacob S.; Hsiang, Allison Y.; Landis, Michael J.; Dornburg, Alex.; Nebreda, Sergio M.; Navalón, Guillermo.; Menéndez, Iris.; Sigurdsen, Trond.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús.; Wang, Shuo.; Stiegler, Josef.; Wu, Ping.; Zhong, Zhengming.; Lautenschlager, Stephan.; Meade, Luke E.; Roy, Arindam.; Rogers, Christopher S.; Clements, Thomas.; Habimana, Olivier.; Martin, Peter.; Heers, Ashley M.; Serrano, Francisco J.; Habib, Michael B.; Dececchi, T. Alexander.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Larsson, Hans C.E.; Wang, Xiaoli.; Zheng, Xiaoting.; Novas, Fernando E.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Egli, Federico Brisson.; Lo Coco, Gastón E.Introduction / Michael Pittman and Xing Xu -- Section 1. Systematics, fossil record, and biogeography -- Chapter 1. Pennaraptoran systematics / Michael Pittman, Jingmai O’Connor, Daniel J. Field, Alan H. Turner, Waisum Ma, Peter Makovicky, and Xing Xu -- Chapter 2. The fossil record of Mesozoic and Paleocene pennaraptorans / Michael Pittman, Jingmai O’Connor, Edison Tse, Peter Makovicky, Daniel J. Field, Waisum Ma, Alan H. Turner, Mark A. Norell, Rui Pei, and Xing Xu -- Chapter 3. The impact of unstable taxa in coelurosaurian phylogeny and resampling support measures for parsimony analyses / Diego Pol and Pablo A. Goloboff -- Chapter 4. The biogeography of coelurosaurian theropods and its impact on their evolutionary history / Anyang Ding, Michael Pittman, Paul Upchurch, Jingmai O’Connor, Daniel J. Field, and Xing Xu -- Chapter 5. Timing the extant avian radiation : the rise of modern birds, and the importance of modeling molecular rate variation / Daniel J. Field, Jacob S. Berv, Allison Y. Hsiang, Robert Lanfear, Michael J. Landis, and Alex Dornburg -- Section 2. Anatomical frontiers -- Chapter 6. Disparity and macroevolutionary transformation of the maniraptoran manus / Sergio M. Nebreda, Guillermo Navalón, Iris Menéndez, Trond Sigurdsen, Luis M. Chiappe, and Jesús Marugán-Lobón -- Chapter 7. Tooth vs. beak : the evolutionary developmental control of the avian feeding apparatus / Shuo Wang, Josef Stiegler, Ping Wu, and Cheng-ming Chuong -- Chapter 8. Functional morphology of the oviraptorosaurian and scansoriopterygid skull / Waisum Ma, Michael Pittman, Stephan Lautenschlager, Luke E. Meade, and Xing Xu -- Chapter 9. Fossil microbodies are melanosomes : evaluating and rejecting the ‘fossilised decay-associated microbes’ hypothesis / Arindam Roy, Christopher S. Rogers, Thomas Clements, Michael Pittman, Olivier Habimana, Peter Martin, and Jakob Vinther -- Section 3. Early-flight study : methods, status, and frontiers -- Chapter 10. Methods of studying early theropod flight / Michael Pittman, Ashley M. Heers, Francisco J. Serrano, Daniel J. Field, Michael B. Habib, T. Alexander Dececchi, Thomas G. Kaye, and Hans C.E. Larsson -- Chapter 11. High flyer or high fashion? A comparison of flight potential among small-bodied paravians / T. Alexander Dececchi, Hans C.E. Larsson, Michael Pittman, and Michael B. Habib -- Chapter 12. Navigating functional landscapes : a bird’s eye view of the evolution of avialan flight / Hans C.E. Larsson, Michael B. Habib, and T. Alexander Dececchi -- Chapter 13. Laser-stimulated fluorescence refines flight modeling of the Early Cretaceous bird Sapeornis / Francisco J. Serrano, Michael Pittman, Thomas G. Kaye, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaoting Zheng, and Luis M. Chiappe -- Chapter 14. Pectoral girdle morphology in early-diverging paravians and living ratites : implications for the origin of flight / Fernando E. Novas, Federico L. Agnolín, Federico Brisson Egli, and Gastón E. Lo Coco. ItemA review of dromaeosaurid systematics and paravian phylogeny. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 371)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-08-17) Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Makovicky, Peter J.; Norell, Mark.Coelurosauria is the most diverse clade of theropod dinosaurs. Much of this diversity is present in Paraves--the clade of dinosaurs containing dromaeosaurids, troodontids, and avialans. Paraves has over 160 million years of evolutionary history that continues to the present day. The clade represents the most diverse living tetrapod group (there are over 9000 extant species of Aves--a word used here as synonomous with "bird"), and it is at the root of the paravian radiation, when dromaeosaurids, troodontids, and avialans were diverging from one another, that we find the morphology and soft tissue changes associated with the origin of modern avian flight. Within the first 15 million years of known paravian evolutionary history members of this clade exhibited a difference of nearly four orders of magnitude in body size, a value that is similar to the extreme body size disparity present today in mammalian carnivorans, avians, and varanoid squamates. In this respect, Paraves is an important case study in characterizing the patterns, processes, and dynamics of evolutionary size change. This last point is of particular interest because of the historical significance placed on the role of body size reduction in the origin of powered avian flight. Our study reviews and revises the membership of Dromaeosauridae and provides an apomorphy-based diagnosis for all valid taxa. Of the currently 31 named dromaeosaurid species, we found 26 to be valid. We provide the most detailed and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of paravians to date in order to explore the phylogenetic history of dromaeosaurid taxa. The general pattern of paravian relationships is explored within the broader context of Coelurosauria with an emphasis on sampling basal avialans, because of their importance for character optimizations at the base of Paraves. A large dataset was constructed by merging two datasets, one examining coelurosaur relationships broadly (based on previous TWiG datasets) and the other examining avialan relationships specifically (Clarke et al., 2006). This merged dataset was then significantly revised and supplemented with novel character analysis focusing on paravian taxa. During character analysis, particular attention was given to basal members of Dromaeosauridae, enigmatic basal paravians such as Jinfengopteryx elegans and Anchiornis huxleyi, and the incorporation of new morphological information from two undescribed troodontid species from the late Cretaceous of Mongolia. A final dataset of 474 characters scored for 111 taxa was used to address paravian evolution. This dataset is important in that it bridges a phylogenetic gap that had persisted between studies on birds and studies on all other coelurosaurs. Most scorings in this matrix were based on the direct observation of specimens. All most parsimonious trees recovered in the cladistic analysis support the monophyly of Paraves, Troodontidae, Dromaeosauridae, and Deinonychosauria. A new clade of basal troodontids is discovered including two undescribed Mongolian troodontids and Jinfengopteryx elegans. Xiaotingia and Anchiornis form a clade at the base of Troodontidae. Recently proposed relationships within Dromaeosauridae are further supported and a succession of clades from Gondwana and Asia form sister taxa to a clade of Laurasian dromaeosaurids. Avialan monophyly is strongly supported with Archaeopteryx, Sapeornis, Jeholornis, and Jixiangornis forming the successive sister taxa to the Confuciusornis node. This topology supports a more basal position for Sapeornis than previous phylogenetic analyses and indicates a progressive acquisition of a fully "avian" shoulder morphology. ItemA small derived theropod from Öösh, early Cretaceous, Baykhangor Mongolia ; American Museum novitates, no. 3557(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2007) Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Hwang, Sunny H.; Norell, Mark.; Mongolian-American Museum Paleontological Project.; Mongolyn Shinzhlekh Ukhaany Akademi.A new theropod dinosaur, Shanag ashile, from the early Cretaceous Öösh deposits of Mongolia is described here. The new specimen (IGM 100/1119) comprises a well-preserved right maxilla, dentary, and partial splenial. This specimen exhibits a number of derived theropod features, including a triangular anteriorly tapering maxilla, a large antorbital fossa, and maxillary participation in the caudally elongate external nares. These features resemble the early Cretaceous dromaeosaurids Sinornithosaurus millenii and Microraptor zhaoianus, as well as the basal avialan Archaeopteryx lithographica. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis including 58 theropod taxa unambiguously depicts the new Öösh theropod as a member of Dromaeosauridae. Relative to other dromaeosaurids, Shanag ashile is autapomorphic in its lack of a promaxillary fenestra and in the presence of interalveolar pneumatic cavities. The discovery of IGM 100/1119 expands our knowledge of early Cretaceous dromaeosaurids and the faunal similarity between the Öösh and the Jehol biotas. ItemSupplemental Material for 'Pennaraptoran theropod dinosaurs : past progress and new frontiers. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 440)'(American Museum of Natural History., 2020-08-21) Pittman, Michael, 1985-; Xu, Xing, 1969-; O'Connor, Jingmai.; Field, Daniel J.; Turner, Alan H. (Alan Hamilton); Ma, Waisum.; Makovicky, Peter J.; Tse, Edison.; Norell, Mark.; Pei, Rui.; Pol, Diego.; Goloboff, Pablo A.; Ding, Anyang.; Upchurch, Paul.; Berv, Jacob S.; Hsiang, Allison Y.; Landis, Michael J.; Dornburg, Alex.; Nebreda, Sergio M.; Navalón, Guillermo.; Menéndez, Iris.; Sigurdsen, Trond; Chiappe, Luis M.; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús.; Wang, Shuo.; Stiegler, Josef.; Wu, Ping.; Zhong, Zhengming.; Lautenschlager, Stephan.; Meade, Luke E.; Roy, Arindam.; Rogers, Christopher S.; Clements, Thomas.; Habimana, Olivier.; Martin, Peter.; Heers, Ashley M.; Serrano, Francisco J.; Habib, Michael B.; Dececchi, T. Alexander.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Larsson, Hans C.E.; Wang, Xiaoli.; Zheng, Xiaoting.; Novas, Fernando E.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Egli, Federico Brisson.; Lo Coco, Gastón E.Supplemental Material for 'Pennaraptoran theropod dinosaurs : past progress and new frontiers. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 440)'