Browsing by Author "Rollins, Harold B., 1939-"
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ItemGastropoda and Monoplacophora of the Solsville member (Middle Devonian, Marcellus Formation) in the Chenango Valley, New York State. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 144, article 2(New York : [American Museum of Natural History], 1971) Rollins, Harold B., 1939-; Eldredge, Niles.; Spiller, Judith. ItemGastropods from the Lower Mississippian Wassonville limestone in southeastern Iowa. American Museum novitates ; no. 2579(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1975) Rollins, Harold B., 1939-"A Lower Mississippian (Kinderhookian) gastropod fauna is described from the Wassonville Formation in southeastern Iowa. This represents one of the few well-preserved Lower Mississippian gastropod faunas known from North America and, as such, contributes to our understanding of a rather critical time in the evolution of Paleozoic gastropods. Twenty-eight species are described, eight of which are new. The new taxa are: Sinuitina nudidorsa, Platyschisma laudoni, Trepospira (Angyomphalus) penelenticulata, Baylea angulosa, Glabrocingulum (Glabrocingulum) minutum, Glyptotomaria (Dictyotomaria) quasicapillaria, Cerithioides judiae, and Baylea trifibra. An unexpected aspect of the Wassonville gastropod fauna is that it shows greater taxonomic affinity with the European Carboniferous than with other North American Carboniferous faunas. This probably reflects the paucity of described North American Mississippian gastropod faunas and the increased understanding, through recent study (notably Batten, 1966), of British and Belgium Tournaisian and Visean gastropods. The genus Cerithiodes, long known from the Upper Paleozoic of Europe, is recognized for the first time in the Carboniferous of North America"--P. . ItemGeoarchaeology of St. Catherines Island, Georgia : proceedings of the Fourth Caldwell Conference, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, March 27-29, 2009. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 94)(American Museum of Natural History., 2011) Bishop, Gale A.; Rollins, Harold B., 1939-; Thomas, David Hurst.; Beratan, Kathi K., 1957-; Booth, Robert K.; Camann, Eleanor J.; Chowns, T. M.; Keith-Lucas, Timothy.; Martin, Anthony J.; Meyer, Brian K.; Pirkle, Fredric L.; Pirkle, William A.; Potter, Donald B., 1923-; Pottinger, James E.; Prezant, Robert S.; Rich, Fredrick J.; Rindsberg, Andrew K.; Sanger, Matthew C., 1976-; Stahlman, Patty A.; Toll, Ronald Bruce, 1955-; Vance, Regina K.; Vega, Anthony J.; Vento, F. J.; American Museum of Natural History.; Saint Catherines Island Foundation.; Caldwell Conference (4th : 2009 : Saint Catherines Island, Ga.)This edited volume addresses the geoarchaeology of St. Catherines Island (Georgia). The field of geoarchaeology has typically been defined as either geology pursued within an archaeological framework or (sometimes the reverse) as archaeology framed with the help of geological methodology. Either way, the formalized objectives of geoarchaeology define a broad range of pursuits, from placing archaeological sites into relative and absolute temporal context through the application of stratigraphic principles and absolute dating techniques, to understanding the natural processes of site formation, to reconstructing the landscapes that existed around a site or group of sites at the time of occupation. The editors of this volume have generally followed the lead of G.R. Rapp and C.L. Hill (2006, Geoarchaeology : the earth-science approach to archaeological interpretation) by stressing the importance of multiple viewpoints and methodologies in applying geoscience techniques to evaluate the archaeological record. In the broadest sense, then, Geoarchaeology of St. Catherines Island applies multiple earth science concepts, techniques, or knowledge bases to the known archaeological record and the processes that created that record. This volume consists of 16 papers presenting the newest research on the stratigraphic and geomorphological evolution of the St. Catherines Island landscape. Of particular interest are presentations addressing the relative timing and nature of sedimentation, paleobiology, sea level change, stream capture, hydrology, and erosional patterning evident on St. Catherines Island (and to some degree the rest of the Georgia Bight). These papers were initially presented at the Fourth Caldwell Conference, cosponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and the St. Catherines Island Foundation, held on St. Catherines Island (Georgia), March 27-29, 2009. Table of contents: Why this archaeologist cares about geoarchaeology : some pasts and futures of St. Catherines Island / David Hurst Thomas -- Evolution of late Pleistocene-Holocene climates and environments of St. Catherines Island and the Georgia Bight / Fredrick J. Rich, Anthony Vega, and Frank J. Vento -- Geoarchaeological research at St. Catherines Island : defining the geological foundation / Gale A. Bishop, Brian K. Meyer, R. Kelly Vance, and Fredrick J. Rich -- Development of a late Pleistocene-Holocene genetic stratigraphic framework for St. Catherines Island : archaeological implications / Frank J. Vento and Patty A. Stahlman -- Ichnological diagnosis of ancient storm-washover fans, Yellow Banks Bluff, St. Catherines Island / Anthony J. Martin and Andrew K. Rindsberg -- Quaternary vegetation and depositional history of St. Catherines Island / Fredrick J. Rich and Robert K. Booth -- Recent shoreline erosion and vertical accretion patterns, St. Catherines Island / Donald B. Potter Jr. -- Role of storm events in beach ridge formation, St. Catherines Island / Harold B. Rollins, Kathi Beratan, and James E. Pottinger -- Drainage changes at Ossabaw, St. Catherines, and Sapelo sounds and their influence on island morphology and spit building on St. Catherines Island / Timothy M. Chowns -- Vibracores and vibracore transects : constraining the geological and cultural history of St. Catherines Island / Gale A. Bishop, David Hurst Thomas, Matthew C. Sanger, Brian K. Meyer, R. Kelly Vance, Robert K. Booth, Fredrick J. Rich, Donald B. Potter, and Timothy Keith-Lucas -- Application of ground penetrating radar to investigations of the stratigraphy, structure, and hydrology of St. Catherines Island / R. Kelly Vance, Gale A. Bishop, Fredrick J. Rich, Brian K. Meyer, and Eleanor J. Camann -- Postsettlement dispersal and dynamic repopulation of estuarine habitats by adult Mercenaria mercenaria, St. Catherines Island / Robert S. Prezant, Harold B. Rollins, and Ronald B. Toll -- The foundation for sea turtle geoarchaeology and zooarchaeology : morphology of recent and ancient sea turtle nests, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, and Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone, Elbert County, Colorado / Gale A. Bishop, Fredric L. Pirkle, Brian K. Meyer, and William A. Pirkle -- Sea turtle habitat deterioration on St. Catherines Island : defining the modern transgression / Gale A. Bishop and Brian K. Meyer -- Modeling indigenous hunting and harvesting of sea turtles and their eggs on the Georgia Coast / Gale A. Bishop, David Hurst Thomas, and Brian K. Meyer -- Geomorphology, sea level, and marine resources : St. Catherines Island / Harold B. Rollins and David Hurst Thomas -- Appendix 1. Noncultural radiocarbon record from St. Catherines Island : a compendium -- Appendix 2. Vibracore record from St. Catherines Island : a compendium. ItemMarine macroinvertebrate diversity of St. Catherines Island, Georgia. American Museum novitates ; no. 3367(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2002) Prezant, Robert S.; Toll, Ronald Bruce, 1955-; Rollins, Harold B., 1939-; Chapman, Eric J.St. Catherines Island is one of several barrier islands lining the coast of Georgia, USA. This island is among the least recently anthropogenically impacted of the Georgia Sea Islands, but had not previously been examined in detail for coastal invertebrate macrofauna. From 1992 through late 1998 a coastal survey was conducted that examined the diverse marine invertebrate fauna of St. Catherines Island. Salt marshes, sand flats, mid- to low-energy sand beaches, beach wood debris, tidal creeks, shallow benthos, and artificial hard substrata (including docks) were qualitatively sampled for macroinvertebrates. Over 340 species were identified. Crustaceans composed close to 40% (14% amphipods; 15% decapods), polychaetes 17.5%, and molluscs about 25% of all species recovered. These results are compared to the few other relevant studies from the United States mid-Atlantic Coast. ItemMorphological observations on the bellerophont Ptomatis patulus (Hall) (Gastropoda, Bellerophontacea). American Museum novitates ; no. 2242(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1966) Rollins, Harold B., 1939- ItemNative American landscapes of St. Catherines Island, Georgia. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 88)(2008) Thomas, David Hurst.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Bishop, Gale A.; Blair, Elliot, 1981-; Blanton, Dennis B.; Crowe, Douglas E. (Douglas Edward); DePratter, Chester B.; Dukes, Joel.; Francis, Peter, Jr.; Guerrero, Debra.; Hayes, Royce H.; Kick, Maureen.; Larsen, Clark Spencer.; Licate, Camille.; Linsley, David M.; May, J. Alan.; McNeil, Jessica.; O'Brien, Deborah Mayer.; Paulk, Greg.; Pendleton, Lorann S. A.; Reitz, Elizabeth Jean, 1946-; Rollins, Harold B., 1939-; Russo, Michael, 1953-; Sanger, Matthew C., 1976-; Saunders, Rebecca, 1955-; Semon, Anna.Four deceptively simple questions have guided our long-term research into the aboriginal lifeways of St. Catherines Island: 1. How and why did the human landscape (settlement patterns and land use) change through time? 2. To what extent were subsistence and settlement patterns shaped by human population increase, intensification, and competition for resources? 3. What factors can account for the emergence of social inequality in Georgia's Sea Islands? 4. Can systematically collected archaeological evidence resolve the conflicting ethno-historic interpretations of the aboriginal Georgia coast (the so-called 'Guale problem')? Over a span of four decades, the American Museum of Natural History has addressed these four fundamental questions using a broad array of field and analytical techniques. We conducted a 20 percent probabilistic transect survey of St. Catherines Island, walking and probing for buried sites across a series of 31 east-west transects, each 100 m wide. During this initial survey we located 122 archaeological sites, which we tested with more than 400 one-meter by one-meter units. Because the transect sampling was heavily biased toward sites with marine shell, we also conducted a systematic shovel testing program. We also augmented these systematic surveys with a direct shoreline reconnaissance (mostly following the late Holocene surfaces), recording roughly 84 additional shoreline sites on St. Catherines Island. By plotting the distribution of these known-age sites across the Holocene beach ridges, we have developed a detailed sequence documenting the progradation and erosion of beach ridge complexes adjacent to tidal estuaries and oceanward shorelines on the island. To evaluate the results of the 1000+ test explorations and excavations on St. Catherines Island, we have processed 251 radiocarbon determinations, including two dozen dates on 'modern' mollusks (known-age specimens collected prior to atomic bomb contamination) to compute a 'reservoir' correction factor specific to the estuaries around St. Catherines Island (of [Delta]R = -134 [+ or -] 26). The results have been compiled into a dataset of 239 radiocarbon determinations for samples from St. Catherines Island. One hundred and ten of these dates (from 31 distinct mortuary and midden sites) could be directly associated with datable ceramic assemblages, which were classified according to Chester DePratter's (1979, 1991) Northern Georgia Coast chronology .By comparing the results of typological classification with the radiocarbon evidence currently available from St. Catherines Island, we propose a slightly modified ceramic chronology for St. Catherines Island. We analyzed the seasonal growth increments in modern hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) for a 9-year interval (beginning in 1975). Mercenaria suitable for seasonal analysis were recovered from nearly 85 percent (110 of 130) of the sites identified and sampled in the island wide survey. We analyzed about 2000 individual hard clam shells recovered from these shell middens and, of these, 1771 individual specimens (or fragments) provided usable growth increment estimates, enabling us to address seasonal patterns during the 5000 years of human history. This study is reinforced by an oxygen isotope study of modern and ancient clams from St. Catherines Island. This transect survey produced an extensive and diverse set of vertebrate faunal remains collected systematically from archaeological sites tested across the entire island. Elizabeth Reitz and her colleagues analyzed this vertebrate faunal assemblage, which contains at least 586 individuals represented by 14,970 vertebrate specimens weighing 21,615 g. These materials provide a solid basis for refining hypotheses not only for St. Catherines Island, but for most coastal locations. With the exception of the first and last occupations (the St. Simons and Altamaha periods), the samples suggest a stable pattern of resource use through time, with little variation through time or across space (although the small sample sizes for each time period and circumscribed geographical setting might constrain this interpretation). She also notes the presence of numerous seasonal indicators in the vertebrate zoo archaeological samples recovered from archaeological sites on St. Catherines Island--including unshed deer antlers, juvenile deer dentition, and shark and sea catfish remains. But we also recognized the importance of examining diverse sources of seasonal information in our attempt to flesh out overall patterns of site utilization. We also include analysis of the vertebrate zooarchaeological assemblages from Meeting House Field and Fallen Tree, two additional sites intensively investigated by the American Museum of Natural History and the University of Georgia. The intensive program of mortuary archaeology has recovered the remains of more than 725 individuals from 18 archaeological sites on St. Catherines Island. More than 90 percent of these remains were analyzed by Clark Spencer Larsen and his colleagues, using a variety of microscopic, biomechanical, and stable isotopic techniques. In this monograph, we address the archaeology of St. Catherines Island using the broad- based theoretical approach known as optimal foraging theory, which is grounded in the more general paradigm of human behavioral ecology (that studies human behavior by applying the principles of natural selection within an ecological context). The broad rubric of 'optimal foraging theory' encompasses a broad range of specific models, each of which employs a unique set of simplifying assumptions and constraints, and each can be used to derive testable hypotheses about foraging behavior under certain environmental circumstances. Each model is a formal, mathematical construct and they share the key assumption that during 'economic' pursuits, the forager will operate to maximize the overall rate of energetic return. Specifically, we have employed three basic models to address the archaeology of St. Catherines Island. The diet-breadth (or prey choice) model addresses the issue of which foods should an efficient forager harvest from all those available on St. Catherines Island. Diet-breadth models predict that foragers will optimize the time spent capturing prey, and employ the simplifying assumptions that all resources are randomly distributed (without patches) and that 'capture/handling' and 'search' times represent the sum total of all time spent foraging. We also apply the patch choice model, which, combined with the central limit theorem, predicts that foraging effort will correlate directly with efficiency rank order, meaning that foragers should spend more time working the higher-ranked patches and less time in patches with lower energetic potential. Finally, we likewise employ the central place foraging model to investigate the time/energy spent processing resources at temporary camps before transport to a residential base. We find central place foraging theory to be useful for addressing the role and location of the residential base as a locus for provisioning offspring and mates or potential mates. This monograph also reports the results of optimal foraging experiments conducted over a 2-year period on St. Catherines Island, specifically addressing procurement and return rates for key marine and terrestrial resources that would have been available to aboriginal foragers on St. Catherines Island. ItemObservations on intertidal organism associations of St. Catherines Island, Georgia. 1, General description and paleoecological implications. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 159, article 3(New York : American Museum of Natural History, 1977) Morris, Robert W. (Robert William), 1941-; Rollins, Harold B., 1939-"Intertidal environments of St. Catherines Island, Georgia are diverse and include exposed sand beaches, sandy tidal flats, relict salt marsh deposits (mud and peat) on exposed beaches, and salt marsh complexes. Nine localities from the northern half of St. Catherines Island were selected for study because they displayed a wide variety of intertidal habitats and organism associations. No attempt was made to describe the entire spectrum of intertidal associations on St. Catherines Island. The bulk of study was made on the relict salt marsh deposits. Besides representing unique modern habitats for infaunal and epifaunal bivalve-dominated associations, the salt marsh deposits gave us valuable paleoecological insights. The organism groupings recognized in the present study are associations in the sense of Kauffman and Scott (1976), but communities in the usage of most workers. One relict mud occurrence contained an assemblage of six distinct associations. The fidelity of replication of these associations in the fossil record depends, in part, upon the steepness of the intertidal environmental stress gradients and the resultant spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. The infaunal bivalves of the relict muds showed expected trends of size distribution with depth, the larger individuals occupying the greater depths. It is suggested that the lateral transportation of dislodged mud clasts has an analog in the geological past in the occurrence of 'exotic' fossiliferous pods and steinkerns. Association boundaries were sharp only where spatial heterogeneity was pronounced, such as within salt marsh complexes. The polychaete associations along sandy tidal flats were less clearly bounded and were often marginally intergradational. Many observations on the intertidal associations of St. Catherines Island were in disagreement with observations made on similar associations elsewhere. Contrary to the conclusions of Woodin (1976), dense infaunal bivalve populations (Petricola pholadiformis) did coexist with dense epifaunal bivalve populations (Brachidontes recurvus). Also, repeated observations of dense tube-building polychaete populations failed to show epifaunal bivalves as predominant co-occurring forms. Polychaete associations along a narrow tidal flat displayed onshore-offshore distributional trends that may have paleoecological utility in the resolution of transgression-regression sequences. Tidal creek populations of Ilynassa obsoleta have a narrower aperture relative to total height than similar populations from more open sand flats. It is suggested that this is correlated with the greater duration of intertidal exposure in the tidal creek habitat. Study of another intertidal snail, Littorina irrorata, demonstrated considerable lateral as well as vertical motility in that species"--P. 89. ItemObservations on intertidal organism associations of St. Catherines Island, Georgia. 2, Morphology and distribution of Littorina irrorata (Say). American Museum novitates ; no. 2873(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1987) Fierstien, John F.; Rollins, Harold B., 1939-"The marsh periwinkle Littorina irrorata (Say) occurs in a variety of Spartina marsh settings on St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Cohorts of L. irrorata were collected at four marsh localities and control grids were monitored over a three-week period. In addition, a fossil population was collected from a relict marsh mud. Each sample was subjected to detailed morphometric analysis using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate techniques. Adult size of L. irrorata is inversely related to population density and density, in turn, is directly proportional to the abundance of Spartina grass. Progenesis appears to be the adaptive strategy adopted for size decrease. Aperture shape exhibited the least variation and was relatively independent of translation rate, whorl expansion rate, aperture angle, and total width. larger apertural area was correlated with low marsh environemnts ('wetter' conditions). Total width of L. irrorata proved to be a better indicator of population structure than total height and should be used in the construction of survivorship curves for this species. The fossil population sample apparently refelcts substantially different growth dynamics, achieving adult size at fewer than six whorls. L. irrorata is a potentially useful tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. the species appears to exhibit limited lateral motility and has a strong distributional dependence upon Spartina grass. Monitoring cohorts of L. irrorata demonstrated a direct relationship between population density and short-term stability of population size"--P. .