Browsing by Author "Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano."
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ItemDescription and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and species of lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil. (American Museum novitates, no. 3713)(American Museum of Natural History., 2011) Peloso, Pedro L. V.; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.; Ávila-Pires, Teresa C. S.Marinussaurus curupira, a new genus and species of Gymnophthalmidae lizard is described from Iranduba, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The genus is characterized by an elongate body; short and stout pentadactyl limbs; all digits clawed; single frontonasal; two prefrontals; absence of frontoparietals; interparietal and parietals forming a straight posterior margin, with interparietal shorter than parietals; distinctive ear opening and eyelid; few temporals; three pairs of chin shields; nasal divided; a distinct collar; smooth, mainly hexagonal, dorsal scales; smooth quadrangular ventral scales; two precloacal and three femoral pores on each side in males; pores between three or four scales. Parsimony (PAR) and partitioned Bayesian (BA) phylogenetic analyses with morphological and molecular data recovered the new genus as a member of the Ecpleopodini radiation of the Cercosaurinae. A close relationship of the new genus with Arthrosaura is postulated. ItemA new collared lizard (Tropidurus, Tropiduridae) endemic to the western Bolivian Andes and its implications for seasonally dry tropical forests. (American Museum novitates, no. 3896)(American Museum of Natural History., 2018-03-19) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes); Rivas, Luis Rolando.; Céspedes, Ricardo.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.;In this study we describe Tropidurus azurduyae, a new species of lizard endemic to the Andes. This species is restricted to inter-Andean dry valleys of central and southern Bolivia, within the ecoregion known as Bolivian Montane Dry Forests. It is currently known from the departments of Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Potosí, and Santa Cruz, where it ranges in elevation from about 1000 to 2800 m. In addition, our analyses of closely related populations of Tropidurus from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay revealed undescribed species in central and northeastern Brazil and eastern Bolivia that render T. etheridgei Cei, 1982, paraphyletic. These results underscore the need for a comprehensive revision of peripheral and disjunct populations currently assigned to widely distributed species of Tropidurus. The phylogenetic relationships and distribution patterns of these new taxa concur with recent findings supporting seasonally dry tropical forests and open formations of dry vegetation from South America as distinct biotic units. Furthermore, they offer no support for seasonally dry tropical forests as closely related areas. In line with these discoveries, we refute biogeographic scenarios based exclusively on vicariance to explain the biogeographic history of Tropidurus. ItemA new genus of microteiid lizard from the Atlantic forests of State of Bahia, Brazil, with a new generic name for Colobosaura mentalis, and a discussion of relationships among the Heterodactylini (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) ; American Museum novitates, no. 3565(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2007) Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado.; Dixo, Marianna Botelho de Oliveira.; Verdade, Vanessa Kruth.; Pavan, Dante.; Suzart Argolo, Antï¿½onio Jorge.; Sites, Jack W.A new genus and species of microteiid lizard is described from a series of specimens obtained in the leaf litter at Una (15°10′S, 39°03′W) in the Atlantic forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. It is characterized by the presence of prefrontals, frontoparietals, parietals, and interparietal; parietals longer than wide; distinct ear openings and eyelids; two pairs of genials, absence of collar and occipital scales; dorsal scales anteriorly smooth and becoming gradually lanceolate and mucronate posterior to the forelimb; and four regular transverse series of smooth ventrals that are longer than wide, identical in size. A phylogenetic analysis based on external morphology, osteology, and molecular data confirms this new lizard as a member of the Heterodactylini radiation of Gymnophthalminae. The topology recovered by maximum parsimony (MP) analyses reveals that its closest relatives are the sister taxa Colobosaura modesta and Iphisa elegans (BS = < 50%; Bremer value = 2) and the partitioned Bremer indexes indicated that the largest contribution to this relationship comes from morphology; Colobosaura mentalis, for which a new generic name is here proposed, is basal to this radiation. Our analyses confirm a previous hypothesis suggesting Stenolepis as a member of the Heterodactylini radiation and that the clade composed of Colobodactylus and Heterodactylus is the sister group of the clade formed by Colobosaura mentalis-Stenolepis (BS = 100; Bremer value = 18), Colobosaura modesta-Iphisa (BS = < 50%; Bremer value = 1), and the new genus here described. The support for Heterodactylini monophyly, on the basis of combined MP analyses is higher (BS = 96, Bremer value = 11) than that previously found in molecular-based studies only. Partitioned Bayesian methodology combining molecular and morphological data sets recovered the new genus as the sister taxon (PP = 0.94) of the clade (PP = 0.94) formed by I. elegans-C. modesta (PP = 0.51) and C. mentalis-S. ridleyℝ (PP = 1.0). An alternative topology demonstrating a paraphyletic Heterodactylini is only weakly supported (PP = 0.63). Based on the MP topology we discuss tentative scenarios for the evolution of Heterodactylini. ItemA new genus of microteiid lizard from the Caparaó Mountains, southeastern Brazil, with a discussion of relationships among Gymnophthalminae (Squamata). (American Museum novitates, no. 3673)(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History., 2009) Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.; Cassimiro, José.; Pavan, Dante.; Curcio, Felipe Franco.; Verdade, Vanessa Kruth.; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado.A new genus and species of microteiid lizard is described based on a series of specimens obtained at Parque Nacional do Caparaó (20°28'S, 41°49'W), southeastern Brazil, along the division line between the States of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. The new lizard occurs in isolated high-altitude, open, rocky habitats above the altitudinal limits of the Atlantic forest. It is characterized by the presence of prefrontals, frontoparietals, parietals, interparietal, and occipital scales; ear opening and eyelid distinct; three pairs of genials; absence of collar; lanceolate and mucronate dorsal scales; six regular transverse and longitudinal series of smooth ventrals that are longer than wide, with the lateral ones narrower. Maximum parsimony (MP) and partitioned Bayesian (PBA) phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular characters with all known genera of Gymnophthalminae (except for Scriptosaura) plus Rhachisaurus recovered this new lizard in a clade having Colobodactylus and Heterodactylus as its closest relatives. Both analyses recovered the monophyly of Gymnophthalminae and Gymnophthalmini. The monophyly of the Heterodactylini received moderate support in MP analyses but was not recovered in PBA. To eliminate classification controversy between these results, the present concept of Heterodactylini is restricted to accommodate the new genus, Colobodactylus and Heterodactylus, and a new tribe Iphisiini is proposed to allocate Alexandresaurus, Iphisa, Colobosaura, Acratosaura, and Stenolepis. Current phylogenetic knowledge of Gymnophthalminae suggests that fossoriality and increase of body elongation arose as adaptive responses to avoid extreme surface temperatures, either cold or hot, depending on circumstances. ItemA new Tropidurus (Tropiduridae) from the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga : evidence for conflicting signal between mitochondrial and nuclear loci affecting the phylogenetic reconstruction of South American collared lizards. (American Museum novitates, no. 3852)(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-02-20) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes); Sena, Marco A.; Peloso, Pedro L. V.; Machado, Fabio A.; Montesinos, Rachel.; Silva, Hélio Ricardo da.; Campbell, Gwyneth.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.Tropidurus Wied, 1825, is one of the most ubiquitous lizard genera distributed in open habitats of tropical and subtropical South America. Nevertheless, the broad representation of specimens of this group in scientific collections is hardly reflected in our knowledge of its taxonomic diversity. Most species currently assigned to Tropidurus began to be uncovered in the early 1980's and additional populations in need of formal taxonomic treatment have been cataloged ever since. Herein, we name Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., a new species of the T. torquatus group endemic to the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga. Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., is currently known from two isolated populations in the municipalities of Caetité and Ibotirama, State of Bahia, Brazil. This is the only species of the T. torquatus group lacking granular mite pockets on the lateral neck, and it is also diagnosable by having a conspicuous bronze-colored head, a light-brown dorsal body with small pale salmon spots, and small body size in comparison with most congeners. Phylogenetic analyses recovered a paraphyletic Tropidurus, but firmly supported T. sertanejo, n. sp., as member of a monophyletic T. torquatus species group. Trees generated by independent analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data conflicted with our total evidence phylogenetic hypotheses. Since topological disagreements were detected among phylogenetic trees resulting from maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions, and MP analyses do not require distinct evolutionary models or partition schemes to be defined prior to conduction of phylogenetic reconstruction, these factors were considered unlikely to explain all the variation in the observed results, favoring the interpretation of conflicting phylogenetic signal. Because detailed information on the distribution, population size, and ecological requirements of T. sertanejo, n. sp., are currently unavailable, we recommend the species to be listed as "data deficient" following the rules proposed by IUCN. ItemStatus of early 19th-century names authored in parallel by Wied and Schinz for South American reptiles and amphibians, with designations of three nomina protecta. (American Museum novitates, no. 3714)(American Museum of Natural History., 2011) Myers, Charles W.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.; Vanzolini, P. E. (Paulo Emilio)Prince Maximilian zu Wied's great exploration of coastal Brazil in 1815-1817 resulted in important collections of reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals, many of which were new species later described by Wied himself. The bulk of his collection was purchased for the American Museum of Natural History in 1869, although many "type specimens" had disappeared earlier. Wied carefully identified his localities but did not designate type specimens or type localities, which are taxonomic concepts that were not yet established. Information and manuscript names on a fraction (17 species) of his Brazilian reptiles and amphibians were transmitted by Wied to Prof. Heinrich Rudolf Schinz at the University of Zurich. Schinz included these species (credited to their discoverer "Princ. Max.") in the second volume of Das Thierreich ... (1822). Most are junior objective synonyms of names published by Wied. However, six of the 17 names used by Schinz predate Wied's own publications. Three were manuscript names never published by Wied because he determined the species to be previously known. (1) Lacerta vittata Schinz, 1822 (a nomen oblitum) = Lacerta striata sensu Wied (a misidentification, non Linnaeus nec sensu Merrem) = Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825, herein qualified as a nomen protectum. (2) Polychrus virescens Schinz, 1822 = Lacerta marmorata Linnaeus, 1758 (now Polychrus marmoratus). (3) Scincus cyanurus Schinz, 1822 (a nomen oblitum) = Gymnophthalmus quadrilineatus sensu Wied (a misidentification, non Linnaeus nec sensu Merrem) = Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt and Lütken, "1861" ), herein qualified as a nomen protectum. Qualifying Scincus cyanurus Schinz, 1822, as a nomen oblitum also removes the problem of homonymy with the later-named Pacific skink Scincus cyanurus Lesson (= Emoia cyanura). The remaining three names used by Schinz are senior objective synonyms that take priority over Wied's names. (4) Bufo cinctus Schinz, 1822, is senior to Bufo cinctus Wied, 1823; both, however, are junior synonyms of Bufo crucifer Wied, 1821 = Chaunus crucifer (Wied). (5) Agama picta Schinz, 1822, is senior to Agama picta Wied, 1823, requiring a change of authorship for this poorly known species, to be known as Enyalius pictus (Schinz). (6) Lacerta cyanomelas Schinz, 1822, predates Teius cyanomelas Wied, 1824 (1822-1831)--both nomina oblita. Wied's illustration and description shows cyanomelas as apparently conspecific with the recently described but already well-known Cnemidophorus nativo Rocha et al., 1997, which is the valid name because of its qualification herein as a nomen protectum. The preceding specific name cyanomelas (as corrected in an errata section) is misspelled several ways in different copies of Schinz's original description ("cyanomlas," "cyanom las," and "cyanom"). Loosening, separation, and final loss of the last three letters of movable type in the printing chase probably accounts for the variant misspellings. ItemSupplemental Material for 'A new Tropidurus (Tropiduridae) from the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga : evidence for conflicting signal between mitochondrial and nuclear loci affecting the phylogenetic reconstruction of South American collared lizards. (American Museum novitates, no. 3852)'(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-02-20) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz G.); Sena, Marco A.; Peloso, Pedro L. V.; Machado, Fabio A.; Montesinos, Rachel.; Silva, Hélio R.; Campbell, Gwyneth.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.Supplemental Material for 'A new Tropidurus (Tropiduridae) from the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga : evidence for conflicting signal between mitochondrial and nuclear loci affecting the phylogenetic reconstruction of South American collared lizards. (American Museum novitates, no. 3852)' - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/6637