Browsing by Author "Grimaldi, David A."
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ItemAmber fossil Drosophilidae (Diptera), with particular reference to the Hispaniolan taxa. American Museum novitates ; no. 2880(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1987) Grimaldi, David A."All the known fossils of Drosophilidae occurring in amber are treated. Neotanygastrella wheeleri, new species, is named, redescribed (cf. Wheeler, 1963) with respect to certain features, and a holotype and paratype are designated for the two specimens from Chiapas, Mexico. Seven new species are described and two others are recorded from amber of the Dominican Republic (approximately early Miocene in origin): Chymomyza primaeva; Drosophila (D.?) poinari; D. (Hirtodrosophila) paleothoracis; D. succini (incertae sedis); Miomyia io, new genus; Protochymomyza miocena, new genus; Scaptomyza dominicana; and two Drosophilinae species (A and B) incertae sedis. Relative genealogical relationships for some drosophiline genera and subgenera are briefly discussed. Illustrations and photographs of the specimens are included, as well as ideas on significance of some of the fossils for Caribbean historical biogeography. A key to amber-fossilized Drosophilidae is provided"--P. . ItemAmber fossil Drosophilidae (Diptera). Part II, Review of the genus Hyalistata, new status (Steganinae). American Museum novitates ; no. 3084(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1993) Grimaldi, David A. ItemAmber fossil Enicocephalidae (Heteroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Lebanon and Oligo-Miocene of the Dominican Republic : with biogeographic analysis of Enicocephalus. American Museum novitates ; no. 3071(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1993) Grimaldi, David A.; Michalski, Caroline.; Schmidt, Kathleen. ItemThe Asteioinea of Fiji (Insecta, Diptera, Periscelididae, Asteiidae, Xenasteiidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3671)(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History., 2009) Grimaldi, David A.Three of the six families in the acalyptrate fly group Asteioinea are reported from Fiji, comprising five genera and 23 species, with all except three of the species being new. The new species in their respective families are the following: Stenomicra ariela, Si. brunnea, Si. castanea, Si. distincta, Si. pallida, Si. sylpha, Si. tokotaai, and Si. xoutha; Cyamops femobrunneus, C. femoctenidius; Stenocyamops luteus, Sy. pseudoluteus, Sy. robustus, and Sy. vittatus (Periscelididae); Asteia pleurovitta, A. pleurovittata, A. rotundiscuta, A. vanuaensis, A. vitiensis (Asteiidae); and Xenasteia fijiana (Xenasteiidae). This is the first report of Stenocyamops outside of Southeast Asia. Stenomicra distinctipennis (Collin) is resurrected from synonymy with S. fascipennis Malloch, based on study of male genitalia belonging to a complex of fascipennis-like species from throughout the Pacific. Asteia nigriceps Bezzi is redescribed. Keys to genera and species are provided. Some species were collected in the rolled leaves of bananas and wild gingers (Zingerberales), which appears to be an important habitat for periscelidids in tropical forests. ItemBasal Cyclorrhapha in amber from the Cretaceous and Tertiary (Insecta, Diptera), and their relationships. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 423)(American Museum of Natural History., 2018-10-24) Grimaldi, David A.Diverse new basal (aschizan) Cyclorrhapha fossilized in amber are described from the Tertiary and Cretaceous, and their relationships are examined with character-based phylogenetic hypotheses for each family or family group. There are 18 new species in 15 genera (11 of them new) and four families plus the Syrphoidea. Fossils are from the Early Cretaceous of Lebanon, Late Cretaceous of New Jersey (United States) and Alberta (Canada), Eocene of the eastern Baltic coast, and Miocene of the Dominican Republic, but predominantly from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar. Stem-group Lonchopteroidea are Alonchoptera lebanica, n. gen., n.sp., and Lonchopterites burmensis, n. sp. Platypezidae include the stem groups Burmapeza radicis, n. gen., n. sp., Canadopeza biacrosticha, n. gen., n. sp., and Calvopeza divergens, n. gen., n. sp. An unnamed Microsania sp. is the first definitive Platypezidae in Baltic amber; Lebanopeza azari, n. gen., n. sp., is a stem group to the Microsaniinae and Melanderomyiinae. Chandleromyia anomala, n. gen., n. sp., is an anomalously derived Platypezinae from the Cretaceous, and two new species of the diverse Recent genus Lindneromyia are in Dominican amber (L. neomedialis and L. dominicana). Fossils of the relict family Ironomyiidae (with 3 living species from eastern Australia) include two stem-group genera with two new species each, all in Burmese amber: Palaeopetia dorsalis and P. terminus, Proironia (n. gen.) gibbera and P. burmitica. All other species of Palaeopetia are compression fossils from the Cretaceous of Asia and Eurasia. For Phoridae, a new defining feature is a stridulatum on the procoxa and profemur in both sexes, occu[r]ring in most fossil taxa where observable. New sciadocerines include Eosciadocera pauciseta, n. sp., a very large species in Baltic amber, and two stem groups in Burmese amber, Prophora dimorion, n. gen., n. sp., and a very small, undescribed taxon. Archiphora pria Grimaldi and Cumming in Turonian-aged New Jersey amber is transferred to Hennigophora Brown, based on evidence from a new specimen. Prioriphorinae (not taxonomically treated here) is a paraphyletic, Cretaceous grade to the very diverse, crown-group radiation of Euphorida that occurred in the Cenozoic. Two syrphoids occur in Burmese amber: Prosyrphus thompsoni, n. gen., n. sp. (an apparent stem group to the Syrphidae), and Aschizomyia burmensis, n. gen., n. sp. (with more ambiguous affinities). Several immatures of undetermined family are reported, one a probable phorid larva. No definitive Schizophora are yet known from the Cretaceous. ItemBiological inclusions in amber from the Paleogene Chickaloon Formation of Alaska. (American Museum novitates, no. 3908)(American Museum of Natural History., 2018-09-28) Grimaldi, David A.; Sunderlin, David.; Aaroe, Georgene A.; Dempsky, Michelle R.; Parker, Nancy E.; Tillery, George Q.; White, Jaclyn G.; Barden, Phillip.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Williams, Christopher J. (Christopher James), 1970-The Chickaloon Formation in south-central Alaska contains rich coal deposits dated very close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, immediately beneath which occur dispersed nodules of amber along with abundant remains of Metasequoia, dicots, and monocots. The nodules are small (less than 10 mm in length), nearly 10,000 of which were screened, yielding several inclusions of fungi and plant fragments, but mostly terrestrial arthropods: 29 specimens in 10 orders and 13 families. The fungi include resinicolous hyphae and a dark, multiseptate hyphomycete. Plants include wood/bark fragments and fibers, and the microphylls of a bryophyte (probably a moss, Musci). Among the arthropods are arachnids: mites (Acari: Oribatida), Pseudoscorpionida, and the bodies and a silken cocoon of spiders (Araneae). Insecta include Blattodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera and Aphidoidea), Coleoptera (Dermestidae: Megatominae), Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae: Tanypodinae), and Hymenoptera (Formicidae: Formicinae). Nymphal aphids predominate (65% of the arthropod individuals), which were probably feeding on the source tree, likely Metasequoia. There is a bias in preservation toward small arthropods (mean body length 0.75 mm) that are surface-dwelling (nonwinged) stages and taxa. Chickaloon amber contains the most northerly fossil records of pseudoscorpions, thrips, Dermestidae, and Cenozoic ants and mites, so the deposit is contributing unique data on high-latitude paleodiversity of the Paleogene hothouse earth. ItemThe bird flies, genus Carnus : species revision, generic relationships, and a fossil Meoneura in amber (Diptera, Carnidae). American Museum novitates ; no. 3190(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1997) Grimaldi, David A. ItemBrachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 239([New York] : American Museum of Natural History, 1999) Grimaldi, David A.; Cumming, Jeffrey Malcolm, 1954-"Sixty-five specimens representing 49 species in 37 genera and 12, possibly 13, families of brachycerous Diptera are described in detail. Some genera are family incertae sedis. They are preserved in Cretaceous ambers from the following areas and ages (abbreviations after each are used to designate the following origins of the ambers): Manitoba and Alberta, Canada (C) (Campanian); central New Jersey (NJ) (Turonian); and Lebanon (L) (Neocomian). All taxa described are new species and most genera are described as new, except where noted. The new taxa and their origins are the following: Tethepomyia thauma (NJ), an extremely apomorphic fly of probable nematocerous affinities. In Rhagionidae: Paleochrysopilus hirsutus (L), Jersambromyia borodini (NJ), Mesobolbomyia acrai (L); and four additional genera (3 L, 1 NJ) that are described and illustrated but not named because of incomplete preservation. Stratiomyidae: a new specimen of Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey (C) is reported, showing newly observed structures that confirm its extremely primitive position in the family; in addition, in NJ amber an additional primitive genus is described but not named, with affinities in the Pachygastrinae, Chiromyzinae, or Beridinae. Hilarimorphidae: Hilarimorphites superba, H. yeatesi, and H. longimedia, all in NJ amber, and the only fossil hilarimorphids. Scenopinidae(?): Proratites simplex (NJ), probably a primitive (proratine) scenopinid, which would be the only Mesozoic fossil of the family. Asilidae: an incomplete, unnamed specimen in NJ amber, which is one of only two Cretaceous records. The most diverse and numerous brachycerans in Cretaceous ambers are in the Empidoidea, with new taxa as follows. Empidinae: Turonempis styx (NJ), Emplita casei (NJ). Atelestinae: Atelestites senectus (L). Nemedina genus group: Cretodromia glaesa (C); Nemedromia campania (C), N. telescopica (C), N. turonia (NJ); Neoturanius asymmetrus (NJ), N. cretatus (NJ), and N. vetus (NJ, possibly also C); Phaetempis lebanensis (L), which is possibly a very plesiomorphic member of this group. The Nemedina group today is represented by a single extant species from Hungary. Tachydromiinae: Cretoplatypalpus americanus (C), with Cretoplatypalpus Kovalev previously known from a species in Cenomanian amber from northern Siberia; and Mesoplatypalpus carpenteri (C). Trichopezinae: Apalocnemis canadambris (C), which is the only species studied here belonging to an extant genus, Apalocnemis Philippi (previously known only from extant species widespread in distribution). Microphorinae: Microphorites similis and M. oculeus (L), two additional species of the extinct genus Microphorites Hennig, known only from Lebanese amber; Avenaphora hispida (L); Cretomicrophorus novemundus (NJ), the second species in the extinct genus Cretomicrophorus Negrobov, originally known from Cretaceous amber of Siberia; Archichrysotus incompletus (NJ) and A. manitobus (C), the genus also previously known from Siberian amber. Dolichopodidae: Sympycnites primaevus (L), which is the oldest definitive dolichopodid. Three new species are described in an unusual new genus, Chimeromyia, known only from Lebanese amber: C. intriguea, C. acuta, and C. reducta. Chimeromyia possesses features of Empidoidea and Cyclorrhapha. The few Cyclorrhapha in Cretaceous ambers are all very plesiomorphic. Platypezidae: Electrosania cretica (NJ), the most plesiomorphic known platypezid. Lebambromyia acrai (L), formally unplaced to family, is a plesiomorphic phoroid closely resembling Ironomyiidae (with one living species in Australia and Tasmania, and one extinct species previously described in Canadian amber). Lonchopteridae: Lonchopterites prisca (L) and Lonchopteromorpha asetocella (L), the only definitive fossils of this small, extant family. Sciadoceridae: Archiphora pria (NJ); and Archisciada lebanensis (L), the oldest fossil of the family and perhaps the most plesiomorphic phoroid. In addition, two new species are described in the Mesozoic genus Prioriphora McAlpine and Martin, P. luzzii and P. casei (both NJ). This is the best represented brachyceran genus in the Cretaceous, although it might be a paraphyletic taxon. Three cyclorrhaphan larvae of uncertain family identities are described, all in NJ amber; one appears similar to Sciadoceridae. Phylogenetic significance of most of these fossils are discussed, as are certain characters of traditional importance in the higher classification of Brachycera, such as the number of aristal articles. The fossils are placed onto cladograms of the lower Brachycera, the Empidoidea, and basal Cyclorrhapha, and a chronology is proposed of the origins of brachyceran families. The Brachycera apparently originated in the Lower Jurassic, with the Asiloidea not diversifying until the Lower Cretaceous. The Eremoneura (Empidoidea + Cyclorrhapha), as expected, show later diversification, with subfamily-level radiations of empidoids in the Lower to mid-Cretaceous, and the most plesiomorphic families of Cyclorrhapha (e.g., Platypezoidea, Phoroidea, Lonchopteridae) appearing in the Lower to mid-Cretaceous. Origins and radiations of the Schizophora almost certainly are of much more recent origin, in the mid to latest Cretaceous and especially the Cenozoic. The diversity and detailed preservation of these fossils contribute exceptional insight into the early evolution of the Brachycera and the Eremoneura in particular"--P. 3-4. ItemComparative anatomy of the insect tracheal system, part 1. Introduction, apterygotes, Paleoptera, Polyneoptera (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 459)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-03-10) Herhold, Hollister W.; Davis, Steven R., 1983-; DeGrey, Samuel P.; Grimaldi, David A.A broad comparative study of insect respiratory morphology is presented. Tracheae, epidermal invaginations extending into the body in branching networks of tubes, supply tissues with direct access to air for gas exchange. While previous tracheal studies focused on a handful of taxa and lacked in consistency, here a unified system of tracheal nomenclature is established using visualizations from micro-CT scanning of representatives from apterygotes, Paleoptera, and Polyneoptera, totaling 29 species, 29 genera, and 26 families in 13 insect orders. Three-dimensional visualizations of named tracheal branches establish robust assessments of homology and provide a framework for further studies across class Insecta. Patterns in respiratory architecture are presented along with a discussion of future investigations into phylogenetic and physiological questions. ItemConiopterygidae (Neuroptera, Aleuropteryginae) in amber from the Eocene of India and the Miocene of Hispaniola. (American Museum novitates, no. 3770)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-02-22) Grimaldi, David A.; Engel, Michael S.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Singh, Hukam.The genus Spiloconis Enderlein is comprised of six Recent Asian and Pacific species, ranging from Sri Lanka (and possibly Madagascar) in the west to eastern Australia and Fiji in the east. Two species previously described in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic, Spiloconis glaesaria Meinander and S. oediloma Engel and Grimaldi, are redescribed for some details. Spiloconis eominuta Grimaldi and Engel, new species, is described in earliest Eocene Cambay amber from Gujarat, India, which has well-preserved male terminalia. Neoconis paleocaribis Grimaldi and Engel, new species, is described from Dominican amber; this Recent genus is known from the southern United States and neotropics. The fossil Spiloconis may have significant biogeographic implications, but definitive determination of this requires a phylogenetic analysis of the 16 Recent genera in the monophyletic subfamily Aleuropteryginae. A Dominican amber-Australasian distribution pattern is known for 18 genera of insects in myriad orders (including Spiloconis), which are briefly reviewed. ItemCretaceous diversity of the relict genus Alavesia Waters and Arillo (Diptera: Empidoidea: Atelestidae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3961)(American Museum of Natural History., 2020-10-06) Sinclair, Bradley J.; Grimaldi, David A.Alavesia has been known on the basis of five species in Late Cretaceous amber from Spain and Myanmar and two extant species from Namibia. Very recently, another extant species has been found in southern Brazil. Here we present a surprising diversity of Alavesia flies from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar (Late Albian-Early Cenomanian, ca. 99 Ma), including nine new species: A. angusta, sp. nov., A. brevipennae, sp. nov., A. lanceolata, sp. nov., A. latala, sp. nov., A. longicornuta, sp. nov., A. magna, sp. nov., A. pankowskiorum, sp. nov., A. spinosa, sp. nov., and A. zigrasi, sp. nov. The following new synonymy is proposed: Neoalavesia Poinar and Vega, 2020 = Alavesia Waters and Arillo, 1999. Notes are provided on an unusual structure, leg furrows found on femora to varying degrees among species, sometimes on tibiae, as well as notes on swarming behavior. Alavesia has undergone extensive extinction, a finding that further supports the relict nature of this genus and helps to explain the distribution of the other four Recent genera of Atelestidae, found in south and north temperate regions. Relict arthropod taxa preserved in Burmese amber are briefly reviewed, which also are narrowly endemic to temperate regions today. ItemCretaceous Scolebythidae and phylogeny of the family (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea) ; American Museum novitates, no. 3568(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2007) Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.The genera of Cretaceous Scolebythidae are reviewed, with three new genera and species described from New Jersey (Turonian) and Lebanese (Barremian) amber. The new taxa are Boreobythus turonius, new genus and species, in New Jersey amber, and Zapenesia libanica, new genus and species, and Uliobythus terpsichore, new genus and species, in Lebanese amber. A cladistic analysis of living and fossil species of Scolebythidae is undertaken and a revised classification of the family proposed. Boreobythus is the oldest scolebythid in the New World, documenting the presence of the family during the late Cretaceous in North America. The Eocene genus Eobythus is perhaps best considered a junior synonym of Pristapenesia but is tentatively retained herein. The historical biogeography of the family is briefly discussed. A key to the living and fossil genera of Scolebythidae is provided. ItemDiverse new scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) in amber from the Cretaceous and Eocene with a phylogenetic framework for fossil Coccoidea. (American Museum novitates, no. 3823)(American Museum of Natural History., 2015-01-16) Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.Coccoids are abundant and diverse in most amber deposits around the world, but largely as macropterous males. Based on a study of male coccoids in Lebanese amber (early Cretaceous), Burmese amber (Albian-Cenomanian), Cambay amber from western India (early Eocene), and Baltic amber (mid-Eocene), 16 new species, 11 new genera, and three new families are added to the coccoid fossil record: Apticoccidae, n. fam., based on Apticoccus Koteja and Azar, and including two new species A. fortis, n. sp., and A. longitenuis, n. sp.; the monotypic family Hodgsonicoccidae, n. fam., including Hodgsonicoccus patefactus, n. gen., n. sp.; Kozariidae, n. fam., including Kozarius achronus, n. gen., n. sp., and K. perpetuus, n. sp.; the first occurrence of a Coccidae in Burmese amber, Rosahendersonia prisca, n. gen., n. sp.; the first fossil record of a Margarodidae sensu stricto, Heteromargarodes hukamsinghi, n. sp.; a peculiar Diaspididae in Indian amber, Normarkicoccus cambayae, n. gen., n. sp.; a Pityococcidae from Baltic amber, Pityococcus moniliformalis, n. sp., two Pseudococcidae in Lebanese and Burmese ambers, Williamsicoccus megalops, n. gen., n. sp., and Gilderius eukrinops, n. gen., n. sp.; an Early Cretaceous eitschatidae, Pseudoweitschatus audebertis, n. gen., n. sp.; four genera considered incertae sedis, Alacrena peculiaris, n. gen., n. sp., Magnilens glaesaria, n. gen., n. sp., and Pedicellicoccus marginatus, n. gen., n. sp., and Xiphos vani, n. gen., n. sp. Interpretation of fossil coccoids is supported by a parsimony phylogenetic analysis based on 174 morphological characters (both adult males and females) and 112 taxa (69 Recent and 43 extinct). ItemDiverse orthorrhaphan flies (Insecta, Diptera, Brachycera) in amber from the Cretaceous of Myanmar. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 408)(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-09-28) Grimaldi, David A.A remarkable diversity of new nonempidoid orthorrhaphan flies from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar (late Albian-early Cenomanian, ca. 99 Ma) is presented, including 28 species (all but one new) in 22 genera (13 new), and at least 12 families. Two families are new; three genera are unplaced in Tabanomorpha and one unplaced within Brachycera. Comparisons are presented between the amber taxa and extensive lithified taxa from the Jurassic and Cretaceous of eastern Laurasia. In Stratiomyomorpha: A new species of Zhangsolvidae has color patterns and body shape that apparently mimic Vespidae or other stinging aculeate wasps. Diverse new Xylomyidae and Stratiomyidae are described, the latter with male terminalia preserved in detail. In Tabanomorpha: The genus Athericites Mostovski et al. is synonymized with Palaepangonius Ren, and a new species of Galloatherix Nel is described in which the female proboscis is much longer than that of the male. All three genera were attributed to Athericidae, but the amber species reveal they are more basal tabanomorphs. Described are a new genus of stem-group Tabanoidea and a new species of Cratotabanus Martins-Neto and Kucero-Santos (Tabanidae), previously known from the Cretaceous of Brazil and New Jersey. In Nemestrinoidea: Three species of Hirmoneura Meigen are the first Nemestrinidae known from amber; one species has long cerci typical of Recent species of the genus. A new species of the Mesozoic family Rhagionemestriidae reveals this family is closely related to Acroceridae, not Xylophagidae as previously proposed. In Archisargoidea: A new species of Tethepomyiidae is described, the family known only in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, Spain, and Myanmar. In Asiloidea: Three new species and genera of Bombyliidae are described, two of them with abdominal setal "baskets" distinctive to females of higher bombyliids. A fourth new asiloid genus is a probable stem-group bombyliid. The recently described Pseudorhagio Zhang et al., is transferred from Tabanomorpha to Bombyliidae. The male of a new species of Burmapsilocephala Gaimari and Mostovski (Apsilocephalidae) has terminalia very similar to that of Evocoa (Evocoidae: Recent, Chile), corroborating close relationship of the two families. In Families incertae sedis: A new species of Hilarimorphites Grimaldi and Cumming (Apystomyiidae) is described, the family known only in New Jersey and Burmese amber and the Recent fauna of California, and a sister group to either Cyclorrhapha or Eremoneura. Mysteromyiidae and Eucaudomyiidae, new families, are described, based on highly modified species with vestigial mouthparts, reduced venation, and unique specializations. Discussion is presented on some morphological features in fossil and Recent Brachycera that have apparent phylogenetic significance but are rarely discussed. This study adds further data to the phenotypic diversity, geological history, and biogeography of a major radiation. ItemDiverse Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae (Isoptera) in Dominican amber. (American Museum novitates, no. 3640)(2009) Krishna, Kumar.; Grimaldi, David A.The most diverse and best-preserved paleofauna of the higher termites heretofore known, all found in Miocene amber of the Dominican Republic, is described. The imago of Coptotermes priscus Emerson is redescribed, and the soldier of C. priscus, the first known fossil soldier of this genus, is described. The fauna includes the following 29 new species, all in existing genera, with Krishna and Grimaldi as authors of each: in the Rhinotermitidae, two new species based on imagoes of each--Coptotermes hirsutus and C. paleodominicanus; in the Termitidae, 23 new species based on imagoes--Amitermes lucidus, Anoplotermes bohio, A. cacique, A. carib, A. maboya, A. naboria, A. nitaino, A. quisqueya, A. taino, Atlantitermes antillea, A. caribea, A. magnoculus, Microcerotermes insulanus, M. setosus, Nasutitermes amplioculatus, N. incisus, N. magnocellus, N. medioculatus, N. pilosus, N. seminudus, Subulitermes hispaniola, S. insularis, and Termes primitivus; in the Nasutitermitinae four new species based on nasute soldiers--Caribitermes hispaniola, Nasutitermes rotundicephalus, Parvitermes longinasus, and Velocitermes bulbus. This brings the total termite fauna in Dominican amber to four families, 17 genera, and 39 species, a number that exceeds that of the present-day fauna of Hispaniola. Biogeographical, paleoecological, and phylogenetic implications of the Dominican amber termites are discussed. ItemThe Drosophila funebris species group in North America (Diptera: Drosophilidae) (American Museum novitates, no. 3988)(American Museum of Natural History., 2022-04-07) Grimaldi, David A.Although the global human commensal Drosophila funebris (Fabricius) is well known and is the type species of the genus Drosophila Fallén, the four native North American species of the funebris group have been poorly defined morphologically. D. macrospina limpiensis Patterson and Wheeler is newly recognized as a species distinct from D. macrospina, with diagnostic morphological characters provided. The subspecies D. macrospina ohioensis Stalker is synonymized under D. macrospina. Species native to the Palearctic and to the Nearctic are morphologically distinct, each probably a monophyletic group. Detailed descriptions and redescriptions are provided for both sexes of D. macrospina Stalker and Spencer, D. limpiensis Patterson and Wheeler, D. subfunebris Stalker and Spencer, and D. trispina Wheeler, the latter two being very rare species from southern California. Neotypes are designated for D. macrospina and D. subfunebris. A key to the five Nearctic species of the funebris group is provided. ItemThe earliest webspinners (Insecta, Embiodea) ; American Museum novitates : no. 3514(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2006) Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.A new genus and species of webspinner (Insecta: Embiodea = Embiidina, Embioptera auctorum) is described and figured from a well-preserved, alate male in mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian) amber from Myanmar (Burma). Sorellembia estherae, new genus and species, is distinguished from the only other Mesozoic webspinner, Burmitembia venosa Cockerell. Unlike the latter taxon, S. estherae embodies an array of notable plesiomorphies for the Neoembiodea (i.e., those Embiodea with strongly asymmetrical terminalia and the tenth tergum divided). Based on its phylogenetic position, S. estherae is placed in a new family, Sorellembiidae. Burmitembia venosa, on the other hand, possesses a synapomorphic suite of traits indicating placement in the Notoligotomidae (sensu novum) and as sister to the apterous subfamily Australembiinae (status novus). Past authors have considered Burmitembia as deserving of familial status, but it seems more conservative to combine the geographically restricted and species-poor sister families Notoligotomidae and Australembiidae and to consider Burmitembia as merely a subfamily therein (as Burmitembiinae). The phylogeny, classification, and geological history of the order are briefly reviewed. ItemElectron microscopic studies of mummified tissues in amber fossils. American Museum novitates ; no. 3097(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1994) Grimaldi, David A.; Bonwich, Elizabeth.; Delannoy, Michael.; Doberstein, Stephen."The degree and consistency of fine and ultrastructural preservation of primarily soft tissue remains preserved in amber fossils were examined, using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 16 insects of various taxa and structure were studied with the SEM, as well as 4 plant specimens, which were from two chemically distinct ambers: 25-30 million year old (myo) amber from the Dominican Republic, and ca. 40 myo amber from the Baltic region. A new technique was used for 'exhuming' a specimen in order to examine the in-situ preservation of whole organs and tissues. Remarkable preservation found in both ambers confirmed earlier reports based on a few specimens. Preservation of all soft tissues in Dominican amber insects appears to be more consistent than in Baltic amber insects, several of which were virtually hollow 'casts.' Membranous structures preserved in the insects include air sacs, uncollapsed tracheae, and various portions of the gut, as well as the brain and bundles of muscle fibers in their original origins and insertions. Very little shrinkage was observed. Specialized pockets, the mycangia, in wood-boring beetles (Platypodidae) still possessed spores and conidiophores of their symbiotic fungus. For plants, columnar cells of leaf mesophyll were found in their original positions and sizes, pollen grains retained the exine sculpturing, and mats of epidermal cells were preserved in anthers. At the ultrastructural level, both flight muscle and brain tissues show substantial degradation of cytoplasmic components due to dehydration. Although sarcomeres are easily identifiable in native muscle samples, the sarcomeric repeats disappear upon hydration, indicating that the repeated structures are probably composed of inorganic salts deposited on thick filaments during dehydration. Membranous structures are generally better preserved than proteinaceous ones. Flight muscle mitochondria are particularly well preserved with tracheoles and T tubules also identifiable. Axon tracts in the central nervous system can be distinguished from cytoplasmic regions, and parallel strips of membranes surrounding cytoplasm are abundant in rehydrated brain samples. Mode of tissue preservation appears to be a rapid and thorough fixation and dehydration, sufficient for preserving DNA in amber more consistently than any other kind of fossil. Pollen was not found viable, but the possibility remains that viable bacterial and fungal spores occur in amber"--P. -2. ItemEvolution of extreme sexual dimorphisms : structural and behavioral convergence among broad-headed male Drosophilidae (Diptera). American Museum novitates ; no. 2939(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1989) Grimaldi, David A.; Fenster, Gene."Males with broad heads (hypercephaly) have arisen 21-24 times in various taxa of flies; 11 instances are in the Drosophilidae. Details of the morphological modification of the male head vary among the hypercephalic taxa, with drosophilids possessing all the types of modifications seen in other hypercephalic flies. Cephalic modifications include distension of the eyes and/or various cranial sclerites or plates (i.e., facial, parafacial, fronto-orbital, occipital plates, and the frontal vitta and ocellar triangle). Reproductive behavior of hypercephalic drosophilids and their close relatives is described for some species and reviewed for others. Measurements are given on eye and head shapes and comparisons are made of approximate optical resolutions. Associated with hypercephaly is aggressive male behavior (head butting and jousting) and vision enhanced for either binocularity (in the pedunculate eye forms) or frontal resolution (those species with conical eyes). Relative growth was compared among the drosophilids using regressions of log10 measurements of head width on thorax length. Hypercephaly is a consequence, despite the manner of modification, of accelerated growth of certain head sclerites, which is manifested in Zygothrica as well by abnormal growth of setae. Predisplacement of growth onset and hypermorphosis rarely contribute to the sexual dimorphism. Only Zygothrica latipanops males were found to occur in two discrete classes (alpha and beta, or extremely and moderately hypercephalic males). A phylogenetic analysis of the apomorphies associated with hypercephaly provided the following hypothesis: in order from the most to least inclusive feature is territoriality, a frontal approach prior to male fighting, head butting, and then, at the apical node, are hypercephaly with its associated optical features and jousting. No recourse is made to explanations of natural or sexual selection regarding origins of correlated traits"--P. . ItemExceptional species diversity of Drosophilidae (Diptera) in a neotropical forest (American Museum novitates, no. 3997)(American Museum of Natural History., 2023-05-10) Grimaldi, David A.; Richenbacher, CourtneyThe highest single-site species diversity known thus far in the world for Drosophilidae is in Costa Rica, based on findings in this report. A total of 352 species of Drosophilidae (Diptera) were found in a cloud forest (1580 m) in Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province (hereafter “Zurquí”), based on 2908 specimens collected continuously for one year, using eight trapping and collecting methods. There are currently 305 described species from Costa Rica. Zurquí is at the edge of a large, protected area and was the site of an All-Diptera inventory project. For this study, drosophilid specimens were identified to genus/subgenus, sorted to morphospecies, and their abundances plotted by collection method: Malaise traps, flight intercept traps, baited traps, light and yellow pan traps, emergence traps, and hand collecting with nets. The standard method used by drosophilists, bait trapping, captured a small fraction of species. Malaise traps captured 87% of all species, and 41% of the 352 species were captured only this way. Emergence traps captured a surprising diversity (47 species) of Diathoneura and Drosophila, establishing that leaf litter/humus is an important breeding site for some taxa. Combining all collection methods, 11 species were abundant, as defined by 50 or more specimens, and comprised 35% of all specimens in the study; two-thirds (66%) of all species were rare, as defined by five or fewer specimens. Comparisons are made to other well-collected sites and regions around the world. Lowland to mid-montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes may be the most diverse area for Drosophilidae, a family that is exemplary for studying the ecology and evolution of tropical diversity.