Browsing by Author "Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory."
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ItemAustralian goblin spiders of the genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 389)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-06-06) Edward, Karen L.; Harvey, Mark S.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.Goblin spiders of the genus Ischnothyreus are characterized by small, heavily sclerotized male pedipalps, reduced dorsal and ventral scutes, and heavy spination of the first and second legs. Species of this genus may be distinguished from each other by the variation in the embolic region of the male palp, female genitalia, color, degree and shape of dorsal and ventral sclerotization, and specializations of the chelicerae and endites in the male. A total of 34 Australian species of Ischnothyreus Simon are recognized, all of which are endemic and found throughout the tropical, monsoonal, and subtropical regions of the country. Ischnothyreus darwini Edward and Harvey is the only previously described species, and 33 are newly described: I. arcus, I. barratus, I. bifidus, I. binorbis, I. boonjee, I. bualveus, I. bupariorbis, I. collingwoodi, I. comicus, I. corniculatum, I. cornuatus, I. crenulatus, I. culleni, I. digitus, I. eacham, I. eungella, I. florence, I. hamatus, I. hoplophorus, I. julianneae, I. ker, I. meidamon, I. monteithi, I. nourlangie, I. ovinus, I. piricius, I. pterodactyl, I. puruntatamerii, I. raveni, I. rixi, I. stauntoni, I. tragicus, and I. tumidus. Many of the described species have extremely small geographic ranges, and the genus shows high diversity over relatively small areas. A key, detailed illustrations, and digital images are provided for all Australian species of Ischnothyreus. ItemBasibulbus, a hard-bodied, haplogyne spider genus from Chile (Araneae, Dysderoidea). (American Museum novitates, no. 3775)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-05-29) Ott, Ricardo.; Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Bonaldo, Alexandre B.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.A new genus, Basibulbus, is established to contain some seldom-collected, hard-bodied, haplogyne spiders from Chile. Because of their small size and the heavily scutate abdomen of males, these animals resemble gamasomorphine goblin spiders (Oonopidae), but differ in having a heavily sclerotized sperm duct within the male palp and a normal sperm opening in the epigastric furrow. Their tarsal organs lack both the longitudinal ridge and the serial dimorphism in raised receptor number that are considered synapomorphic for oonopids, but are elevated (albeit only at their proximal end), and the genus is therefore assigned to the Orsolobidae. Three new species are described: B. malleco (the type species) and B. concepcion from central Chile (regions VIII and IX), and B. granizo from further north (Region V). Only one other hard-bodied orsolobid genus has been described (Duripelta Forster from New Zealand); Basibulbus does not seem to be closely related to that genus, and represents another in the long list of relictual, phylogenetically significant, Chilean spider taxa. One of the possible synapomorphies of dysderoids, an oblique unsclerotized strip on the base of the anterior lateral spinnerets (which has been lost in higher gamasomorphines) has apparently been lost independently within Basibulbus. That character is present in B. granizo but absent in at least B. malleco. ItemEvolutionary morphology of the primary male reproductive system and spermatozoa of goblin spiders (Oonopidae; Araneae). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 396)(American Museum of Natural History., 2015-09-24) Lipke, Elisabeth.; Michalik, Peter, 1976-; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.Goblin spiders (Oonopidae Simon, 1890) are distributed worldwide and among the most species-rich spider taxa. However, goblin spiders are understudied in many aspects and their phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. As previously shown for numerous other spider groups the male and female reproductive system bears many characters of phylogenetic relevance. Moreover, the diversity of sperm structures within spiders is astonishingly diverse and often taxon specific. In the present study, we analyzed the primary male reproductive system and spermatozoa of goblin spiders for the first time. We investigated 18 species of 13 genera representing the subfamilies Orchestininae and Oonopinae by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. We scored 44 characters from the gross morphology of the reproductive system as well as spermatozoa including four new characters for the male spider reproductive system. All investigated species transfer sperm as synspermia, a method corroborating with the recently proposed "Synspermiata" clade unifying all ecribellate Haplogynae. Furthermore, goblin spiders show by far the highest diversity of sperm structures in spiders. In total, we recovered 30 unambiguous synapomorphies for different oonopid taxa. In a comparison with all other spider taxa studied to date, we identified the longest sperm (Neoxyphinus termitophilus) and longest sperm conjugates (Orchestina). Moreover and most remarkable is the presence of aflagellate sperm in Opopaea apicalis, which is the first report of the loss of a sperm flagellum in tetrapulmonate arachnids. These findings are of high interest not only because of their phylogenetic implications, but also with regard to their contribution to our understanding of postcopulatory sexual selection in spiders. ItemThe goblin spider genus Costarina (Araneae, Oonopidae). Part 1. (American Museum novitates, no. 3730)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-01-25) Platnick, Norman I.; Dupérré, N. (Nadine); Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The type species of Costarina, C. plena (O. P.-Cambridge), is redescribed, has an unusually broad distribution (extending from southern Mexico to northern Costa Rica), and is sometimes sympatric with a relatively widespread new sibling species, C. subplena. The same region also houses 26 additional new species with much smaller distribution ranges: C. iviei, C. llama, C. oaxaca, C. mixtepec, C. naja, C. sepultura, and C. bochil from southern Mexico, C. belmopan, C. peten, C. macha, C. cahui, C. morales, and C. izabal from Belize and Guatemala, C. cortes, C. cofradia, C. cusuco, C. tela, C. ceiba, C. branstetteri, C. olancho, C. muralla, C. coma, and C. gracias from Honduras, and C. waspuk, C. musun, and C. blanco from Nicaragua. At least 11 of these highly localized, microdistributed species have been taken in sympatry with C. plena. Because C. plena and C. subplena are the only members of the genus that have been collected in western and southern Guatemala, we suspect that this area represents the original range of one or both of the widespread species. However, five pairs of the microdistributed species have also been taken in sympatry with each other (and in one case together with C. plena as well) ItemThe goblin spider genus Costarina (Araneae, Oonopidae). Part 2, The Costa Rican fauna. (American Museum novitates, no. 3794)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-01-06) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Víquez, Carlos.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The type species of Costarina, C. plena (O. P.-Cambridge), is widely distributed, occurring from southern Mexico to southern Costa Rica, but Costa Rica also houses an extraordinarily large fauna of endemic, less widely distributed Costarina species. In addition to the two previously described species, C. meridina (Chickering, the female of which is newly described) and C. watina (Chickering), 49 new endemic species are described: C. paraplena, superplena, maritza, cima, elena, monte, murphyorum, chiles, upala, poas, selva, viejo, rafael, azul, carara, nara, aguirre, quepos, carrillo, ramon, isidro, san, cuerici, leones, junio, reventazon, macho, cruz, chonta, barbilla, espavel, veragua, pity, penshurst, hitoy, mooreorum, cerere, frantzius, gemelo, pittier, alturas, cruces, ubicki, palmar, parabio, semibio, jimenez, parapalmar, and osa. Two other species also occur in Costa Rica. Costarina concinna (Chickering) is placed as the male (and hence a senior synonym) of C. potena (Chickering), both of which were described from Volcán, Panama; the species appears to be a relatively widespread, southern vicariant of C. plena. The Panamanian species C. obtina (Chickering) is also newly recorded from Costa Rica, and its female is described for the first time. ItemThe goblin spider genus Costarina (Araneae, Oonopidae). Part 3. (American Museum novitates, no. 3819)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-11-10) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The Costarina faunas of Panama and Colombia are revised. Because Chickering described the sexes from his Panamanian collections separately, several of his names based only on females are placed as junior synonyms of names based only on males: C. humphreyi (Chickering) is newly synonymized with C. recondita (Chickering), as are C. belinda (Chickering) with C. intempina (Chickering), C. rigida (Chickering) with C. abdita (Chickering), C. silvatica (Chickering) with C. dura (Chickering), and C. improvisa (Chickering) with C. seclusa (Chickering). The Costa Rican species C. pittier Platnick and Berniker is newly recorded from Panama. Nine new species are described from Panama (C. sorkini, cerrocol, bocas, chiriqui, clara, fortuna, almirante, dybasi, and tskui), as are 11 from Colombia (C. sasaima, suiza, otun, choco, yotoco, saladito, antonio, anchicaya, gorgona, helechal, and taraira). Previous studies on more northern species are supplemented; newly available collections from Nicaragua reveal the presence there of two new species (C. kilambe and diablo), and locality records are provided for the Costa Rican members of the genus. ItemThe goblin spider genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae) in the New World. (American Museum novitates, no. 3759)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-09-21) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.Although originally described from St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles, the goblin spider genus Ischnothyreus Simon appears to be an Old World taxon that is represented in the New World only by two presumably introduced, pantropical, synanthropic species: I. peltifer (Simon) and I. velox Jackson. Two specific names based on New World specimens (I. barrowsi Chamberlin and Ivie from Florida, and I. indressus Chickering from the Lesser Antilles) are placed as junior synonyms of I. velox, which is newly recorded from Mexico, Panama, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Venezuela, Brazil, Madagascar, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Hawaii, the Marquesas Islands, and New Caledonia. A third species, I. browni Chickering, that is supposedly from Costa Rica was apparently based on mislabeled specimens that are actually from the Philippines. The type specimens of I. browni resemble those of the Seychelle species Ischnothyrella jivani (Benoit) in that the dorsal abdominal scutum of males is extremely weak and that of females is either greatly reduced or entirely lost. Both species nevertheless share the synapomorphies of Ischnothyreus, and the generic name Ischnothyrella Saaristo is therefore placed as a junior synonym of Ischnothyreus. ItemThe goblin spider genus Khamisia and its relatives (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3837)(American Museum of Natural History., 2015-06-26) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The goblin spider genus Khamisia Saaristo and van Harten was based on a single female from Yemen characterized by large lateral extensions of the sternum that widely separate coxae II and III. Three new species, including the first known males of the genus, are described: K. hayer from the United Arab Emirates, K. atlit from Israel, and K. holmi from Kenya. All these species are united by having only two trichobothria on the palpal tibia; K. hayer has apparently been introduced into Cape Verde. Other specimens with a similarly modified sternum have been found in Africa, Madagascar, and the Virgin Islands, but differ in having the normal set of three trichobothria on the palpal tibia. The new genus Khamisina is established for three new species that also differ in having an abdominal color pattern, a punctate sternum, and uniquely shaped cheliceral setae: K. kivu from DR Congo, K. kilifi from Kenya, and K. ibadan from Nigeria. A second new genus, Khamiscar, is established for six new species from Madagascar in which the sternum is widened posteriorly and bears marginal radiating ridges, and the tarsal organs have only a single raised receptor: K. anta, K. maro, K. tola, K. kiri, K. baly, and K. ambi. A third new genus, Khamisoides, is established for three bizarre new species from the Virgin Islands (K. muchmorei from St. Croix; K. edwardsi and K. calabash from St. John) that differ in having only two eyes, fused posterior median spinnerets, and female genitalia with a pair of lateral receptacula and anteriorly directed apodemes. ItemThe goblin spider genus Oonopoides in North and Central America (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3788)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-11-08) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The goblin spider genus Oonopoides Bryant was established for a species from Cuba, Oonopoides maxillaris Bryant, and most of the species that have subsequently been assigned to the genus are from that island. The group is actually circum-Caribbean in distribution, but many of its members have been misplaced in the genus Oonops Templeton; here we treat those representatives of the genus that have been collected in North and Central America. Six specific names are transferred from Oonops to Oonopoides: O. endicus Chickering from Florida and the Bahama Islands, O. secretus Gertsch from Texas and Tamaulipas, O mitchelli Gertsch from Mexico, and O. pallidulus (Chickering), O. tenebus Chickering, and O. anoxus Chickering from Panama. Males of O. zullinii Brignoli from Mexico and females of O. secretus are described for the first time; O. tenebus is placed as the male, and hence a junior synonym, of O. pallidulus. The holotype of Oonops zeteki Chickering from Panama is a juvenile that probably belongs to Costarina Platnick and Dupérré and the name is placed as a nomen dubium. Eight new species are described: O. iviei from Florida and the Bahama Islands, O. catemaco, O. chicanna, and O. kaplanae from Mexico, O. hondo from Honduras, O. cristo and O. upala from Costa Rica, and O. cartago from Costa Rica and Panama. ItemThe goblin spider genus Zyngoonops (Araneae, Oonopidae), with notes on related taxa. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 379)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-06-18) Fannes, Wouter.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The goblin spider genus Zyngoonops Benoit, 1977 is revised. The type and hitherto only species, Z. clandestinus Benoit from the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.), is redescribed on the basis of topotypical material. Nine new species are described from the D.R.C. (Z. moffetti, Z. redii, Z. goedaerti, Z. rockoxi, Z. beatriceae, Z. chambersi, Z. swammerdami, Z. marki) and the Central African Republic (Z. walcotti). Members of Zyngoonops show remarkable modifications of the sternum and pedicel tube: the sternum has two heavily sclerotized posterior extensions, and the pedicel tube has a protruding ventral lip. The female genitalia are complex, consisting of an epigastric scape, two uterine sclerites, and a long genital duct. In most species, the distal part of the duct is highly coiled. Males resemble those of Antoonops Fannes and Jocqué and Coxapopha Platnick in having elaborately modified endites, a pair of pleural flaps, and a carapace with extended anterolateral corners. The type species of Coxapopha is redescribed, and new images of the female genitalia of Antoonops and Coxapopha are provided. A cladistic analysis of morphological characters provides support for the monophyly of Zyngoonops and identifies Z. redii as the most basal species of the genus. ItemThe goblin spiders of the new genus Volborattella (Araneae, Oonopidae) from Madagascar. (American Museum novitates, no. 3822)(American Museum of Natural History., 2015-01-16) Saucedo, Alma D.; Ubick, Darrell.; Griswold, Charles E.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.A new genus of goblin spider from Madagascar, Volborattella Saucedo and Ubick, is proposed and its five included species newly described and illustrated: V. teresae, the type species, V. guenevera, V. nasario, V. paulyi, and V. toliara. These species differ from other oonopids in several unusual characters, especially the variously modified setae: abdominal scutes having thick recumbent setae with large bases and conspicuous pits; the pedicel region with mats of plumose setae and associated cuticular projections; and anterior metatarsi with prolateral combs. The male palp of Volborattella appears to be unique in having a terminal projection (embolar superior prong, ESP) that forms an abrupt spiral and the female a receptaculum with an accessory duct (curved tube). Volborattella resemble members of the Gamasomorpha complex in lacking leg spines and having a flattened abdomen with complete scutes, but differ genitalically. The Volborattella female has a receptaculum that is wider than long (as opposed to longer than wide in the Gamasomorpha complex) and the male has the embolar region sharply bent (as opposed to evenly curved), which places the genus in the Pelicinus complex. The relationship of Volborattella to other pelicinoids is not resolved. Although the genus most closely resembles some Silhouettella Benoit, Noideattella Álvarez-Padilla et al. and Lionneta Benoit in various genitalic features, somatically it shares with Tolegnaro Álvarez-Padilla et al. and two undescribed Malagasy genera the gamasomorphoid body form and plumose setae. Volborattella females are unusual in having antisymmetrical internal genitalia, with the CTs occurring in either a left or right position, and that these differences in handedness (antisymmetry) are evenly distributed. The shape and size of the CT, as examined through light and scanning microscopy, suggest that it is a coupling pocket for the ESP; if so, Volborattella females are either righties or lefties in their palpal preference. ItemGot males? : the enigmatic goblin spider genus Triaeris (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3756)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-09-14) Platnick, Norman I.; Dupérré, N. (Nadine); Ubick, Darrell.; Fannes, Wouter.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.The type species of the goblin spider genus Triaeris Simon, T. stenaspis Simon, was originally described from Saint Vincent in the Lesser Antilles, but has attained a pantropical distribution and even has introduced populations living in European greenhouses. At least one of those European populations is parthenogenetic, and no males of the species have ever been found. Simon later assigned one additional species to the genus, T. equestris, from Príncipe; that species is also known only from females, but resembles T. stenaspis in having an unusually elongated, ventrally spinose patella on leg I. Numerous other species, from both the Old and New worlds, have subsequently been assigned to Triaeris; all those taxa seem to be either synonyms (including T. berlandi Lawrence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, T. lepus Suman from Hawaii, and T. lacandonus Brignoli from Guatemala, which are newly synonymized with T. stenaspis) or misplaced in the genus. The modified patella I occurs in four new West African species (T. moca from Bioko and T. fako, T. oku, and T. menchum from Cameroon); unfortunately, those species are also represented only by females. Few other gamasomorphines have patellar spines, and most of those that do have such spines belong to a group of genera in which the males have heavily sclerotized endites, suggesting that Triaeris might belong to that group. Searching West African collections of such taxa revealed two additional new species, T. togo and T. ibadan, that are each represented by both sexes. Female genitalic structure suggests that T. togo is the closest relative of T. stenaspis. ItemHigh resolution images for Australian goblin spiders of the genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 389)(2014-06-10) Edward, Karen L.; Harvey, Mark S.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.High resolution images for Australian goblin spiders of the genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae). (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 389) - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/6532 ItemIndian Ocean goblin spiders (Araneae, Oonopidae) : four new species of pelicinoids from Madagascar, with a redescription of the type species Silhouettella curieusei Benoit, 1979. (American Museum novitates, no. 3835)(American Museum of Natural History., 2015-05-29) Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando.; Ubick, Darrell.; Griswold, Charles E.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.Four new species of oonopid spiders are described from Madagascar, divided between the genera Silhouettella and Noideattella: S. perismontes, sp. nov., S. perisalma, sp. nov., N. omby, sp. nov., and N. sylvnata, sp. nov. A new diagnosis for Silhouettella is provided, its type species, S. curieusei, from the Seychelles is redescribed, and its morphology thoroughly documented with digital images.. ItemThe neotropical goblin spiders of the new genera Ponsoonops and Bipoonops (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3803)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-05-22) Bolzern, Angelo.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.Two new genera, Ponsoonops and Bipoonops, are established for groups of species characterized by sexually dimorphic dorsal abdominal scutum expression (with a scutum present in males but not females), male palps with a separate cymbium and bulb, and a patterned abdomen. Both genera belong therefore to the Varioonops complex, represented now by three described Neotropical genera. Members of Ponsoonops are united by three putative synapomorphies in males: a "pierlike" dorsal scutum completely fused to the epigastric scutum, a patch of short setae ventrodistally on metatarsi I and II, and a short anteromedian protrusion on the endites. Female Ponsoonops specimens differ from other members of the Varioonops complex in having small lateral sclerites at the epigynal area and a smooth sternum. Members of Bipoonops share a large, irregularly shaped, rather indistinct dark spot posteriorly on the carapace, a putative synapomorphy, and a moderately rugose sternum surface; males are characterized by a distinct, bipartite conductor. A total of 22 Ponsoonops species, 21 new to science, are described: P. duenas, P. hamus, and P. tacana from Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, P. bilzi, P. lucha, P. samadam, P. sanvito, and P. viejo from Costa Rica, P. bollo, P. boquete, P. coiba, P. fanselix, P. frio, P. lerida, P. mirante, P. panto, P. salimsa, and P. vuena from Panama, P. pansedro from Colombia, P. micans (Simon, transferred from Dysderoides) from Venezuela, P. yumuri from Cuba, and P. lavega from the Dominican Republic. Bipoonops is described for three new species found on the western slope of the Andes in Ecuador: B. baobab, B. pucuna, and B. tsachila. ItemThe Neotropical goblin spiders of the new genus Reductoonops (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3811)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-08-27) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.A new genus, Reductoonops, is established for a group of New World soft-bodied oonopine spiders, found from Mexico south to Chile, characterized by reduced size, a flattened clypeus, loss of the posterior median spinnerets, and often by loss of the four posterior eyes. Members of this group resemble those of Stenoonops Simon but lack the clump of short setae found on the dorsal surface of the palpal tarsus of both sexes in that genus, and often have four pairs of deep channels at the sides of the sternum, the most anterior pair of which demarcate a short, trapezoidal, anterior portion of the sternum. A total of 34 new species are described from Mexico (chamela, armeria, niltepec, real, nubes, jabin), Costa Rica (monte, lucha), Costa Rica and Panama (naci), Panama (almirante, escopeta, bayano), Jamaica (ferry), Curaçao (hato), Martinique (diamant), Colombia (marta, sasaima, meta, leticia), Ecuador (tandapi, pichincha, tina, domingo, otonga, palenque, napo, jatun, hedlite, molleturo, celica, yasuni), the Galapagos Islands (pinta), Peru (carpish), and Chile (elqui). ItemThe neotropical goblin spiders of the new genus Varioonops (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3791)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-12-11) Bolzern, Angelo.; Platnick, Norman I.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.A new genus, Varioonops, is established for a group of species characterized by sexual dimorphism in abdomen morphology (with a dorsal scutum present in males but not females), male palps with a separate cymbium and bulb, and a patterned abdomen. The closest relatives of the new genus appear to be three similar, but as yet undescribed, Neotropical genera that share those characters, but the members of Varioonops are united by a putative synapomorphy that does not seem to occur in those undescribed groups: a granulated sternum. Attention is drawn to the cymbial cone, a structure (possibly a receptor) found near the tip of the cymbium in Varioonops, members of the Orchestininae, and at least some soft-bodied members of the Oonopinae. A total of 23 new species are described: V. cafista (the type species), V. velsala, V. montesta, V. spatharum, V. poas, V. varablanca, V. tortuguero, V. veragua, V. heredia, and V. girven from Costa Rica, V. ramila and V. sansidro from Costa Rica and Panama, V. funator and V. cerrado from Panama, V. edvardi and V. sinesama from Colombia, and V. yacambu, V. trujillo, V. pittieri, V. chordio, V. parlata, V. potaguo, and V. grancho from Venezuela. ItemA new goblin spider genus of the Zyngoonops group from Costa Rica, with notes on Coxapopha (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3820)(American Museum of Natural History., 2014-12-22) Platnick, Norman I.; Berniker, Lily.; Víquez, Carlos.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.A new genus, Hexapopha, is described for a group of species from Costa Rica that resemble those of Coxapopha Platnick in having an elevated carapace and heavily sclerotized, highly modified male endites but differ in retaining six eyes, lacking leg spines, and having no female genitalic scape. Xestaspis reimoseri Fage is transferred to Hexapopha as the type species, its female is described for the first time, and three new species (H. hone, H. jimenez, and H. osa) are described. Dysderina caeca Birabén, from Argentina, is transferred to Coxapopha. ItemThe New World goblin spiders of the new genus Neotrops (Araneae, Oonopidae). Part 1. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 383)(American Museum of Natural History., 2013-12-02) Grismado, Cristian J.; Ramírez, Martín J.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.A new genus of soft-bodied oonopids, Neotrops, is established for a large assemblage of goblin spiders found in all tropical and subtropical areas of the Neotropical region, from Panama to Uruguay and central Argentina. Members of Neotrops have spinose forelegs, and share a general palpal morphology with those of Heteroonops Dalmas, but have a prolateral conductor connected with an internal bulbal vesicle that presumably discharges its secretion through a prolateral slit. Females lack a posterior receptacle in the internal genitalia, having only a posterodorsal plate serving for muscle attachment. Here we treat all the species except those from Brazil, which will be addressed in a subsequent paper. Twenty-three new species are described: N. darwini (type species), N. lorenae, and N. sciosciae (from Argentina and Uruguay); N. yunga, N. piacentinii, N. poguazu, and N. lopardoae (from Argentina); N. rubioi, N. pombero, and N. avalosi (from Argentina and Paraguay); N. labarquei (from Uruguay), N. yabare, N. izquierdoi, and N. kopuchianae (from Bolivia); N. pithecia, N. silvae, and N. pakitza (from Peru); N. platnicki, and N. waorani (from Ecuador); N. santamarta and N. caparu (from Colombia); and N. maracay and N. amacuro (from Venezuela). Four additional species, previously placed in Oonops Templeton, are transferred here to Neotrops: O. nigromaculatus Mello-Leitão, from Argentina and Uruguay; O. tucumanus Simon, from Argentina; O. donaldi Chickering, from Panama; and O. trapellus Chickering, from Trinidad and Venezuela. The females of the three latter species are here described for the first time. Most of the species are known from the leaf litter or the foliage of tropical and subtropical forests, but also from grasslands in the southern parts of their distributional range, where they appear as the dominant soft-bodied oonopids. The relationships of this new taxon are briefly discussed, and intrageneric groupings are also proposed. ItemNoideattella and Tolegnaro, two new genera of goblin spiders from Madagascar, with comments on the gamasomorphoid and silhouettelloid oonopids (Araneae, Oonopidae). (American Museum novitates, no. 3745)(American Museum of Natural History., 2012-05-25) Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando.; Ubick, Darrell.; Griswold, Charles E.; Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory.Two new genera of goblin spiders from Madagascar, Noideattella, new genus, and Tolegnaro, new genus, are described with 11 and two species respectively. Noideattella includes N. assumptia, new combination (transferred from Silhouettella), and 10 new species: N. amboa, N. famafa, N. fantara, N. farihy, N. gamela, N. lakana, N. mamba, N. saka, N. tany, and N. tsiba. Tolegnaro includes two new species: T. sagani and T. kepleri. A phylogenetic data matrix of 436 terminals and 341 morphological characters was extracted from the Goblin Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) descriptive database. The monophyly of Noideattella and Tolegnaro was tested in a phylogenetic analysis of this matrix. In this analysis other oonopid genera recently revised were also recovered as monophyletic and with high support values. A key for all species described here is provided. Noideattella species can be differentiated by having the pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view, forming a posterior cone, tibia and metatarsi with spines, and abdomen completely covered by scuta. Tolegnaro species in addition present plumose seta around the pedicel area.