Browsing by Author "Frost, Darrel R."
Now showing 1 - 11 of 11
Results Per Page
ItemThe amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 297(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2006) Frost, Darrel R.; Grant, Taran, 1972-; Faivovich, Julián.; Bain, Raoul H.; Haas, Alexander.; Haddad, Celio F. B.; De Sa, Rafael O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, Mark, 1963-; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Blotto, Boris L.; Moler, Paul E.; Drewes, Robert C.; Nussbaum, Ronald A.; Lynch, John D.; Green, David Martin.; Wheeler, Ward.The evidentiary basis of the currently accepted classification of living amphibians is discussed and shown not to warrant the degree of authority conferred on it by use and tradition. A new taxonomy of living amphibians is proposed to correct the deficiencies of the old one. This new taxonomy is based on the largest phylogenetic analysis of living Amphibia so far accomplished. We combined the comparative anatomical character evidence of Haas (2003) with DNA sequences from the mitochondrial transcription unit H1 (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA and tRNA[superscript Valine] genes, [approximately equal to] 2,400 bp of mitochondrial sequences) and the nuclear genes histone H3, rhodopsin, tyrosinase, and seven in absentia, and the large ribosomal subunit 28S ([approximately equal to] 2,300 bp of nuclear sequences; ca. 1.8 million base pairs; x [arithmetic mean] = 3.7 kb/terminal). The dataset includes 532 terminals sampled from 522 species representative of the global diversity of amphibians as well as seven of the closest living relatives of amphibians for outgroup comparisons. The primary purpose of our taxon sampling strategy was to provide strong tests of the monophyly of all "family-group" taxa. All currently recognized nominal families and subfamilies were sampled, with the exception of Protohynobiinae (Hynobiidae). Many of the currently recognized genera were also sampled. Although we discuss the monophyly of genera, and provide remedies for nonmonophyly where possible, we also make recommendations for future research. A parsimony analysis was performed under Direct Optimization, which simultaneously optimizes nucleotide homology (alignment) and tree costs, using the same set of assumptions throughout the analysis. Multiple search algorithms were run in the program POY over a period of seven months of computing time on the AMNH Parallel Computing Cluster. Results demonstrate that the following major taxonomic groups, as currently recognized, are nonmonophyletic: Ichthyophiidae (paraphyletic with respect to Uraeotyphlidae), Caeciliidae (paraphyletic with respect to Typhlonectidae and Scolecomorphidae), Salamandroidea (paraphyletic with respect to Sirenidae), Leiopelmatanura (paraphyletic with respect to Ascaphidae), Discoglossanura (paraphyletic with respect to Bombinatoridae), Mesobatrachia (paraphyletic with respect to Neobatrachia), Pipanura (paraphyletic with respect to Bombinatoridae and Discoglossidae/Alytidae), Hyloidea (in the sense of containing Heleophrynidae; paraphyletic with respect to Ranoidea), Leptodactylidae (polyphyletic, with Batrachophrynidae forming the sister taxon of Myobatrachidae + Limnodynastidae, and broadly paraphyletic with respect to Hemiphractinae, Rhinodermatidae, Hylidae, Allophrynidae, Centrolenidae, Brachycephalidae, Dendrobatidae, and Bufonidae), Microhylidae (polyphyletic, with Brevicipitinae being the sister taxon of Hemisotidae), Microhylinae (poly/paraphyletic with respect to the remaining non-brevicipitine microhylids), Hyperoliidae (para/polyphyletic, with Leptopelinae forming the sister taxon of Arthroleptidae + Astylosternidae), Astylosternidae (paraphyletic with respect to Arthroleptinae), Ranidae (paraphyletic with respect to Rhacophoridae and Mantellidae). In addition, many subsidiary taxa are demonstrated to be nonmonophyletic, such as (1) Eleutherodactylus with respect to Brachycephalus; (2) Rana (sensu Dubois, 1992), which is polyphyletic, with various elements falling far from each other on the tree; and (3) Bufo, with respect to several nominal bufonid genera. A new taxonomy of living amphibians is proposed, and the evidence for this is presented to promote further investigation and data acquisition bearing on the evolutionary history of amphibians. The taxonomy provided is consistent with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999). Salient features of the new taxonomy are (1) the three major groups of living amphibians, caecilians/Gymnophiona, salamanders/Caudata, and frogs/Anura, form a monophyletic group, to which we restrict the name Amphibia; (2) Gymnophiona forms the sister taxon of Batrachia (salamanders + frogs) and is composed of two groups, Rhinatrematidae and Stegokrotaphia; (3) Stegokrotaphia is composed of two families, Ichthyophiidae (including Uraeotyphlidae) and Caeciliidae (including Scolecomorphidae and Typhlonectidae, which are regarded as subfamilies); (4) Batrachia is a highly corroborated monophyletic group, composed of two taxa, Caudata (salamanders) and Anura (frogs); (5) Caudata is composed of two taxa, Cryptobranchoidei (Cryptobranchidae and Hynobiidae) and Diadectosalamandroidei new taxon (all other salamanders); (6) Diadectosalamandroidei is composed of two taxa, Hydatinosalamandroidei new taxon (composed of Perennibranchia and Treptobranchia new taxon) and Plethosalamandroidei new taxon; (7) Perennibranchia is composed of Proteidae and Sirenidae; (8) Treptobranchia new taxon is composed of two taxa, Ambystomatidae (including Dicamptodontidae) and Salamandridae; (9) Plethosalamandroidei new taxon is composed of Rhyacotritonidae and Xenosalamandroidei new taxon; (10) Xenosalamandroidei is composed of Plethodontidae and Amphiumidae; (11) Anura is monophyletic and composed of two clades, Leiopelmatidae (including Ascaphidae) and Lalagobatrachia new taxon (all other frogs); (12) Lalagobatrachia is composed of two clades, Xenoanura (Pipidae and Rhinophrynidae) and Sokolanura new taxon (all other lalagobatrachians); (13) Bombinatoridae and Alytidae (former Discoglossidae) are each others' closest relatives and in a clade called Costata, which, excluding Leiopelmatidae and Xenoanura, forms the sister taxon of all other frogs, Acosmanura; (14) Acosmanura is composed of two clades, Anomocoela (5 Pelobatoidea of other authors) and Neobatrachia; (15) Anomocoela contains Pelobatoidea (Pelobatidae and Megophryidae) and Pelodytoidea (Pelodytidae and Scaphiopodidae), and forms the sister taxon of Neobatrachia, together forming Acosmanura; (16) Neobatrachia is composed of two clades, Heleophrynidae, and all other neobatrachians, Phthanobatrachia new taxon; (17) Phthanobatrachia is composed of two major units, Hyloides and Ranoides; (18) Hyloides comprises Sooglossidae (including Nasikabatrachidae) and Notogaeanura new taxon (the remaining hyloids); (19) Notogaeanura contains two taxa, Australobatrachia new taxon and Nobleobatrachia new taxon; (20) Australobatrachia is a clade composed of Batrachophrynidae and its sister taxon, Myobatrachoidea (Myobatrachidae and Limnodynastidae), which forms the sister taxon of all other hyloids, excluding sooglossids; (21) Nobleobatrachia new taxon, is dominated at its base by frogs of a treefrog morphotype, several with intercalary phalangeal cartilages--Hemiphractus (Hemiphractidae) forms the sister taxon of the remaining members of this group, here termed Meridianura new taxon; (22) Meridianura comprises Brachycephalidae (former Eleutherodactylinae + Brachycephalus) and Cladophrynia new taxon; (23) Cladophrynia is composed of two groups, Cryptobatrachidae (composed of Cryptobatrachus and Stefania, previously a fragment of the polyphyletic Hemiphractinae) and Tinctanura new taxon; (24) Tinctanura is composed of Amphignathodontidae (Gastrotheca and Flectonotus, another fragment of the polyphyletic Hemiphractinae) and Athesphatanura new taxon; (25) Athesphatanura is composed of Hylidae (Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, and excluding former Hemiphractinae, whose inclusion would have rendered this taxon polyphyletic) and Leptodactyliformes new taxon; (26) Leptodactyliformes is composed of Diphyabatrachia new taxon (composed of Centrolenidae (including Allophryne) and Leptodactylidae, sensu stricto, including Leptodactylus and relatives) and Chthonobatrachia new taxon; (27) Chthonobatrachia is composed of a reformulated Ceratophryidae (which excludes such genera as Odontophrynus and Proceratophrys and includes other taxa, such as Telmatobius) and Hesticobatrachia new taxon; (28) Hesticobatrachia is composed of a reformulated Cycloramphidae (which includes Rhinoderma) and Agastorophrynia new taxon; (29) Agastorophrynia is composed of Bufonidae (which is partially revised) and Dendrobatoidea (Dendrobatidae and Thoropidae); (30) Ranoides new taxon forms the sister taxon of Hyloides and is composed of two major monophyletic components, Allodapanura new taxon (microhylids, hyperoliids, and allies) and Natatanura new taxon (ranids and allies); (31) Allodapanura is composed of Microhylidae (which is partially revised) and Afrobatrachia new taxon; (32) Afrobatrachia is composed of Xenosyneunitanura new taxon (the "strange-bedfellows" Brevicipitidae (formerly in Microhylidae) and Hemisotidae) and a more normal-looking group of frogs, Laurentobatrachia new taxon (Hyperoliidae and Arthroleptidae, which includes Leptopelinae and former Astylosternidae); (33) Natatanura new taxon is composed of two taxa, the African Ptychadenidae and the worldwide Victoranura new taxon; (34) Victoranura is composed of Ceratobatrachidae and Telmatobatrachia new taxon; (35) Telmatobatrachia is composed of Micrixalidae and a worldwide group of ranoids, Ametrobatrachia new taxon; (36) Ametrobatrachia is composed of Africanura new taxon and Saukrobatrachia new taxon; (37) Africanura is composed of two taxa: Phrynobatrachidae (Phrynobatrachus, including Dimorphognathus and Phrynodon as synonyms) and Pyxicephaloidea; (38) Pyxicephaloidea is composed of Petropedetidae (Conraua, Indirana, Arthroleptides, and Petropedetes), and Pyxicephalidae (including a number of African genera, e.g. Amietia (including Afrana), Arthroleptella, Pyxicephalus, Strongylopus, and Tomopterna); and (39) Saukrobatrachia new taxon is the sister taxon of Africanura and is composed of Dicroglossidae and Aglaioanura new taxon, which is, in turn, composed of Rhacophoroidea (Mantellidae and Rhacophoridae) and Ranoidea (Nyctibatrachidae and Ranidae, sensu stricto). Many generic revisions are made either to render a monophyletic taxonomy or to render a taxonomy that illuminates the problems in our understanding of phylogeny, so that future work will be made easier. These revisions are: (1) placement of Ixalotriton and Lineatriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossinae) into the synonymy of Pseudoeurycea, to render a monophyletic Pseudoeurycea; (2) placement of Haideotriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Spelerpinae) into the synonymy of Eurycea, to render a monophyletic Eurycea; (3) placement of Nesomantis (Anura: Sooglossidae) into the synonymy of Sooglossus, to assure a monophyletic Sooglossus; (4) placement of Cyclorana and Nyctimystes (Anura: Hylidae: Pelodryadinae) into Litoria, but retaining Cyclorana as a subgenus, to provide a monophyletic Litoria; (5) partition of "Limnodynastes" (Anura: Limnodynastidae) into Limnodynastes and Opisthodon to render monophyletic genera; (6) placement of Adenomera, Lithodytes, and Vanzolinius (Anura: Leptodactylidae) into Leptodactylus, to render a monophyletic Leptodactylus; (7) partition of "Eleutherodactylus" (Anura: Brachycephalidae) into Craugastor, "Eleutherodactylus", "Euhyas", "Pelorius", and Syrrhophus to outline the taxonomic issues relevant to the paraphyly of this nominal taxon to other nominal genera; (8) partition of "Bufo" (Anura: Bufonidae) into a number of new or revived genera (i.e., Amietophrynus new genus, Anaxyrus, Chaunus, Cranopsis, Duttaphrynus new genus, Epidalea, Ingerophrynus new genus, Nannophryne, Peltophryne, Phrynoidis, Poyntonophrynus new genus; Pseudepidalea new genus, Rhaebo, Rhinella, Vandijkophrynus new genus); (9) placement of the monotypic Spinophrynoides (Anura: Bufonidae) into the synonymy of (formerly monotypic) Altiphrynoides to make for a more informative taxonomy; (10) placement of the Bufo taitanus group and Stephopaedes (as a subgenus) into the synonymy of Mertensophryne (Anura: Bufonidae); (11) placement of Xenobatrachus (Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae) into the synonymy of Xenorhina to render a monophyletic Xenorhina; (12) transfer of a number of species from Plethodontohyla to Rhombophryne (Microhylidae: Cophylinae) to render a monophyletic Plethodontohyla; (13) placement of Schoutedenella (Anura: Arthroleptidae) into the synonymy of Arthroleptis; (14) transfer of Dimorphognathus and Phrynodon (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) into the synonymy of Phrynobatrachus to render a monophyletic Phrynobatrachus; (15) placement of Afrana into the synonymy of Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) to render a monophyletic taxon; (16) placement of Chaparana and Paa into the synonymy of Nanorana (Anura: Dicroglossidae) to render a monophyletic genus; (17) recognition as genera of Ombrana and Annandia (Anura: Dicroglossidae: Dicroglossinae) pending placement of them phylogenetically; (18) return of Phrynoglossus into the synonymy of Occidozyga to resolve the paraphyly of Phrynoglossus (Anura: Dicroglossidae: Occidozyginae); (19) recognition of Feihyla new genus for Philautus palpebralis to resolve the polyphyly of ''Chirixalus''; (20) synonymy of "Chirixalus" with Chiromantis to resolve the paraphyly of "Chirixalus"; (21) recognition of the genus Babina, composed of the former subgenera of Rana, Babina and Nidirana (Anura: Ranidae); (22) recognition of the genera Clinotarsus, Humerana, Nasirana, Pelophylax, Pterorana, Pulchrana, and Sanguirana, formerly considered subgenera of Rana (Anura: Ranidae), with no special relationship to Rana (sensu stricto); (23) consideration of Glandirana (Anura: Ranidae), formerly a subgenus of Rana, as a genus, with Rugosa as a synonym; (24) recognition of Hydrophylax (Anura: Ranidae) as a genus, with Amnirana and most species of former Chalcorana included in this taxon as synonyms; (25) recognition of Hylarana (Anura: Ranidae) as a genus and its content redefined; (26) redelimitation of Huia to include as synonyms Eburana and Odorrana (both former subgenera of Rana); (27) recognition of Lithobates (Anura: Ranidae) for all species of North American "Rana" not placed in Rana sensu stricto (Aquarana, Pantherana, Sierrana, Trypheropsis, and Zweifelia considered synonyms of Lithobates); (28) redelimitation of the genus Rana as monophyletic by inclusion as synonyms Amerana, Aurorana, Pseudoamolops, and Pseudorana, and exclusion of all other former subgenera; (29) redelimitation of the genus Sylvirana (Anura: Ranidae), formerly a subgenus of Rana, with Papurana and Tylerana included as synonyms. ItemAnguid lizards of the genus Abronia : revisionary notes, descriptions of four new species, a phylogenetic analysis, and key. Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 216([New York] : American Museum of Natural History, 1993) Campbell, Jonathan A.; Frost, Darrel R."We establish that Abronia vasconcelosii is a junior synonym of A. aurita. Abronia fimbriata is resurrected from the synonymy of A. aurita and shown to be one of the most distinctive species in the genus. Abronia gaiophantasma and A. anzuetoi are described, respectively, from the cloud forest of the western Sierra de las Minas, Department of Baja Verapaz, Guatemala, and the southern (Pacific) slope of the Volcán de Agua, Department of Escuintla, Guatemala. These species had previously been confused with A. aurita and 'A. vasconcelosii,' Respectively. Abronia smithi, a new species from the Pacific versant of Chiapas, Mexico, and A. leurolepis, a new species from the Atlantic versant of Chiapas, Mexico, are described and distinguished from A. ochoterenai, from the Atlantic versant of Chiapas, Mexico, with which they had previously been confused. A more detailed diagnosis of A. matudai, of the Pacific versant of Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico, is provided. Abronia kalaina is placed in the synonymy of A. fuscolabialis, and specimens previously reported as A. montecristoi from Honduras are shown to be representatives of A. salvadorensis. We address the taxonomic history and provide synonymies and diagnoses for each of the problematical species. The natural history, conservation biology, and phylogeny of Abronia are discussed. The use of intraspecifically variable characters in phylogenetic inference is addressed and alternative approaches to analysis are compared: (1) a reference approach in which only 'fixed' characters are employed (i.e., all transformation series that contain polymorphic cells in the data matrix are excluded); (2) a 'baseline' approach in which polymorphisms are optimized onto the resulting cladograms, but polymorphism is not allowed on interior stems; (3) an 'any instance' approach in which only a priori apomorphies are coded, regardless of frequency; (4) an 'unscaled,' minimum turnover approach in which all character matches count equally a priori and origination of apomorphies is minimized; and (5) a 'scaled' approach in which the transformation diameter from 'fixed' plesiomorphy direct to 'fixed' apomorphy is the same as from 'fixed' plesiomorphy to 'variable' within a terminal taxon to 'fixed' apomorphy. A priori weighting of characters that exhibit no intrapopulational polymorphism over those showing polymorphism is done in order to evaluate the signal inherent in intraspecifically variable characters as well as characterization problems. Successive approximations is evaluated as a means of increasing the signal to noise ratio in data analysis. The technique recommended for incorporating intraspecifically variable morphological characters into a phylogenetic analysis is an unscaled, minimum turnover approach, combined with successive approximations"--P. 4. ItemA molecular perspective on the phylogeny of the girdled lizards (Cordylidae, Squamata). American Museum novitates ; no. 3310(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2001) Frost, Darrel R.; Janies, Daniel.; Mouton, P. le Fras N.; Titus, Tom A.Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained for 16 species representing all nominal genera of Cordylidae (Platysaurus, Chamaesaura, Cordylus, and Pseudocordylus). Gerrhosauridae and Teiidae were used as first and second outgroups. Results indicate that the oviparous Platysaurus is the sister taxon of the remaining cordylids (all of which are ovoviviparous). Within the ovoviviparous group Cordylus is paraphyletic with respect to Chamaesaura and Pseudocordylus. No evidence of Pseudocordylus monophyly was discovered. The three species of Chamaesaura and the seven species of Pseudocordylus are transferred to Cordylus to render a monophyletic taxonomy. ItemPhylogenetic analysis and taxonomy of the Tropidurus group of lizards (Iguania, Tropiduridae). American Museum novitates ; no. 3033(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1992) Frost, Darrel R.; ItemPhylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia, Athesphatanura, Dendrobatidae). Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 299(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2006) Grant, Taran, 1972-; Frost, Darrel R.; Caldwell, Janalee P.; Gagliardo, Ron; Haddad, Célio F.B.; Kok, Philippe J.R.; Means, D. Bruce; Noonan, Brice P.; Schargel, Walter E.; Wheeler, Ward.The known diversity of dart-poison frog species has grown from 70 in the 1960s to 247 at present, with no sign that the discovery of new species will wane in the foreseeable future. Although this growth in knowledge of the diversity of this group has been accompanied by detailed investigations of many aspects of the biology of dendrobatids, their phylogenetic relationships remain poorly understood. This study was designed to test hypotheses of dendrobatid diversification by combining new and prior genotypic and phenotypic evidence in a total evidence analysis. DNA sequences were sampled for five mitochondrial and six nuclear loci (approximately 6,100 base pairs [bp]; å[arithmetic mean] = 53,740 bp per terminal; total dataset composed of approximately 1.55 million bp), and 174 phenotypic characters were scored from adult and larval morphology, alkaloid profiles, and behavior. These data were combined with relevant published DNA sequences. Ingroup sampling targeted several previously unsampled species, including Aromobates nocturnus, which was hypothesized previously to be the sister of all other dendrobatids. Undescribed and problematic species were sampled from multiple localities when possible. The final dataset consisted of 414 terminals: 367 ingroup terminals of 156 species and 47 outgroup terminals of 46 species. Direct optimization parsimony analysis of the equally weighted evidence resulted in 25,872 optimal trees. Forty nodes collapse in the strict consensus, with all conflict restricted to conspecific terminals. Dendrobatids were recovered as monophyletic, and their sister group consisted of Crossodactylus, Hylodes, and Megaelosia, recognized herein as Hylodidae. Among outgroup taxa, Centrolenidae was found to be the sister group of all athesphatanurans except Hylidae, Leptodactyidae was polyphyletic, Thoropa was nested within Cycloramphidae, and Ceratophryinae was paraphyletic with respect to Telmatobiinae. Among dendrobatids, the monophyly and content of Mannophryne and Phyllobates were corroborated. Aromobates nocturnus and Colostethus saltuensis were found to be nested within Nephelobates, and Minyobates was paraphyletic and nested within Dendrobates. Colostethus was shown to be rampantly nonmonophyletic, with most species falling into two unrelated cis- and trans-Andean clades. A morphologically and behaviorally diverse clade of median lingual process-possessing species was discovered. In light of these findings and the growth in knowledge of the diversity of this large clade over the past 40 years, we propose a new, monophyletic taxonomy for dendrobatids, recognizing the inclusive clade as a superfamily (Dendrobatoidea) composed of two families (one of which is new), six subfamilies (three new), and 16 genera (four new). Although poisonous frogs did not form a monophyletic group, the three poisonous lineages are all confined to the revised family Dendrobatidae, in keeping with the traditional application of this name. We also propose changes to achieve a monophyletic higher-level taxonomy for the athesphatanuran outgroup taxa. Analysis of character evolution revealed multiple origins of phytotelm-breeding, parental provisioning of nutritive oocytes for larval consumption (larval oophagy), and endotrophy. Available evidence indicates that transport of tadpoles on the dorsum of parent nurse frogs--a dendrobatid synapomorphy--is carried out primitively by male nurse frogs, with three independent origins of female transport and five independent origins of biparental transport. Reproductive amplexus is optimally explained as having been lost in the most recent common ancestor of Dendrobatoidea, with cephalic amplexus arising independently three times. ItemPhylogeny of plecotine bats (Chiroptera, "Vespertilionidae") : summary of the evidence and proposal of a logically consistent taxonomy. American Museum novitates ; no. 3034(New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History, 1992) Frost, Darrel R.; Timm, Robert M. ItemSupplemental Material for 'Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia, Athesphatanura, Dendrobatidae). (Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 299)'(2006) Grant, Taran, 1972-; Frost, Darrel R.; Caldwell, Janalee P.; Gagliardo, Ron; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Means, D. Bruce; Noonan, Brice P.; Schargel, Walter E.; Wheeler, Ward.Supplemental Material for 'Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia, Athesphatanura, Dendrobatidae). (Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 299)' - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/5803 ItemSupplemental Material for 'Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae : phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. (Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 294)'(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2005) Faivovich, Julián.; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Frost, Darrel R.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Wheeler, Ward.Supplemental Material for 'Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae : phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. )Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 294)' - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/462 ItemSupplemental Material for 'The amphibian tree of life. (Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 297)'(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2006) Frost, Darrel R.; Grant, Taran, 1972-; Faivovich, Julián.; Bain, Raoul H.; Haas, Alexander; Haddad, Célio F. B.; De Sá, Rafael O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, Mark, 1963-; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Blotto, Boris L.; Moler, Paul E.; Drewes, Robert C.; Nussbaum, Ronald A.; Lynch, John D.; Green, David Martin.; Wheeler, Ward.Supplemental Material for 'The amphibian tree of life. (Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 297)' - http://hdl.handle.net/2246/5781 ItemSystematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae : phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 294(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2005) Faivovich, Julián.; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Frost, Darrel R.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Wheeler, Ward.Hylidae is a large family of American, Australopapuan, and temperate Eurasian treefrogs of approximately 870 known species, divided among four subfamilies. Although some groups of Hylidae have been addressed phylogenetically, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis has never been presented. The first goal of this paper is to review the current state of hylid systematics. We focus on the very large subfamily Hylinae (590 species), evaluate the monophyly of named taxa, and examine the evidential basis of the existing taxonomy. The second objective is to perform a phylogenetic analysis using mostly DNA sequence data in order to (1) test the monophyly of the Hylidae; (2) determine its constituent taxa, with special attention to the genera and species groups which form the subfamily Hylinae, and c) propose a new, monophyletic taxonomy consistent with the hypothesized relationships. We present a phylogenetic analysis of hylid frogs based on 276 terminals, including 228 hylids and 48 outgroup taxa. Included are exemplars of all but 1 of the 41 genera of Hylidae (of all four nominal subfamilies) and 39 of the 41 currently recognized species groups of the species-rich genus Hyla. The included taxa allowed us to test the monophyly of 24 of the 35 nonmonotypic genera and 25 species groups of Hyla. The phylogenetic analysis includes approximately 5100 base pairs from four mitochondrial (12S, tRNA valine, 16S, and cytochrome b) and five nuclear genes (rhodopsin, tyrosinase, RAG-1, seventh in absentia, and 28S), and a small data set from foot musculature. Concurring with previous studies, the present analysis indicates that Hemiphractinae are not related to the other three hylid subfamilies. It is therefore removed from the family and tentatively considered a subfamily of the paraphyletic Leptodactylidae. Hylidae is now restricted to Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae. Our results support a sister-group relationship between Pelodryadinae and Phyllomedusinae, which together form the sister taxon of Hylinae. Agalychnis, Phyllomedusa, Litoria, Hyla, Osteocephalus, Phrynohyas, Ptychohyla, Scinax, Smilisca, and Trachycephalus are not monophyletic. Within Hyla, the H. albomarginata, H. albopunctata, H. arborea, H. boans, H. cinerea, H. eximia, H. geographica, H. granosa, H. microcephala, H. miotympanum, H. tuberculosa, and H. versicolor groups are also demonstrably nonmonophyletic. Hylinae is composed of four major clades. The first of these includes the Andean stream-breeding Hyla, Aplastodiscus, all gladiator frogs, and a tepuian clade. The second clade is composed of the 30-chromosome Hyla, Lysapsus, Pseudis, Scarthyla, Scinax (including the H. uruguaya group), Sphaenorhynchus, and Xenohyla. The third major clade is composed of Nyctimantis, Phrynohyas, Phyllodytes, and all South American/West Indian casque-headed frogs: Aparasphenodon, Argenteohyla, Corythomantis, Osteocephalus, Osteopilus, Tepuihyla, and Trachycephalus. The fourth major clade is composed of most of the Middle American/Holarctic species groups of Hyla and the genera Acris, Anotheca, Duellmanohyla, Plectrohyla, Pseudacris, Ptychohyla, Pternohyla, Smilisca, and Triprion. A new monophyletic taxonomy mirroring these results is presented where Hylinae is divided into four tribes. Of the species currently in "Hyla", 297 of the 353 species are placed in 15 genera; of these, 4 are currently recognized, 4 are resurrected names, and 7 are new. Hyla is restricted to H. femoralis and the H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. eximia, and H. versicolor groups, whose contents are redefined. Phrynohyas is placed in the synonymy of Trachycephalus, and Pternohyla is placed in the synonymy of Smilisca. The genus Dendropsophus is resurrected to include all former species of Hyla known or suspected to have 30 chromosomes. Exerodonta is resurrected to include the former Hyla sumichrasti group and some members of the former H. miotympanum group. Hyloscirtus is resurrected for the former Hyla armata, H. bogotensis, and H. larinopygion groups. Hypsiboas is resurrected to include several species groups--many of them redefined here--of gladiator frogs. The former Hyla albofrenata and H. albosignata complexes of the H. albomarginata group are included in Aplastodiscus. New generic names are erected for (1) Agalychnis calcarifer and A. craspedopus; (2) Osteocephalus langsdorffii; the (3) Hyla aromatica, (4) H. bromeliacia, (5) H. godmani, (6) H. mixomaculata, (7) H. taeniopus, (8) and H. tuberculosa groups; (9) the clade composed of the H. pictipes and H. pseudopuma groups; and (10) a clade composed of the H. circumdata, H. claresignata, H. martinsi, and H. pseudopseudis groups. ItemTotal evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of polychrotid lizards, and a reclassification of the Iguania (Squamata, Iguania). American Museum novitates ; no. 3343(New York, NY : American Museum of Natural History, 2001) Frost, Darrel R.; Etheridge, Richard, 1929-; Janies, Daniel A.; Titus, Tom A.Using the techniques of direct optimization and sensitivity analysis, the phylogenetics of polychrotid lizards were examined on the basis of both molecular and morphological data (ca. 1040 bp of 12S rDNA, valine tDNA, and 16S rDNA, and 82 characters of morphology). A sensitivity analysis of sequence alignment and morphological change cost functions demonstrated that equal weighting provided the most parsimonious solution for all data. The Polychrotidae is found not to be monophyletic, containing instead the Corytophanidae as the sister taxon of Anolis plus Polychrus. Based on these and other results over the last 12 years, the taxonomy of the Iguania is reformulated, with the Iguania composed of two subsidiary taxa, Acrodonta and Pleurodonta, the Acrodonta containing the likely paraphyletic and basally unresolved "Agamidae" as well as the Chamaeleonidae, and the Pleurodonta containing the Corytophanidae, Crotaphytidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiocephalidae (newly elevated from its former status as a subfamily of the Tropiduridae), Leiosauridae (new taxon including Anisolepis, Aperopristis, Diplolaemus, Enyalius, Leiosaurus, Pristidactylus, and Urostrophus), Liolaemidae (newly elevated from its former status as a subfamily of the Tropiduridae), Opluridae, Phrynosomatidae, Polychrotidae (restricted to Anolis and Polychrus), and Tropiduridae (excluding the former subfamilies Leiocephalinae and Liolaeminae).