Browsing by Author "Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes)"
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ItemA new collared lizard (Tropidurus, Tropiduridae) endemic to the western Bolivian Andes and its implications for seasonally dry tropical forests. (American Museum novitates, no. 3896)(American Museum of Natural History., 2018-03-19) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes); Rivas, Luis Rolando.; Céspedes, Ricardo.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.;In this study we describe Tropidurus azurduyae, a new species of lizard endemic to the Andes. This species is restricted to inter-Andean dry valleys of central and southern Bolivia, within the ecoregion known as Bolivian Montane Dry Forests. It is currently known from the departments of Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Potosí, and Santa Cruz, where it ranges in elevation from about 1000 to 2800 m. In addition, our analyses of closely related populations of Tropidurus from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay revealed undescribed species in central and northeastern Brazil and eastern Bolivia that render T. etheridgei Cei, 1982, paraphyletic. These results underscore the need for a comprehensive revision of peripheral and disjunct populations currently assigned to widely distributed species of Tropidurus. The phylogenetic relationships and distribution patterns of these new taxa concur with recent findings supporting seasonally dry tropical forests and open formations of dry vegetation from South America as distinct biotic units. Furthermore, they offer no support for seasonally dry tropical forests as closely related areas. In line with these discoveries, we refute biogeographic scenarios based exclusively on vicariance to explain the biogeographic history of Tropidurus. ItemA new Tropidurus (Tropiduridae) from the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga : evidence for conflicting signal between mitochondrial and nuclear loci affecting the phylogenetic reconstruction of South American collared lizards. (American Museum novitates, no. 3852)(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-02-20) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes); Sena, Marco A.; Peloso, Pedro L. V.; Machado, Fabio A.; Montesinos, Rachel.; Silva, Hélio Ricardo da.; Campbell, Gwyneth.; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut Urbano.Tropidurus Wied, 1825, is one of the most ubiquitous lizard genera distributed in open habitats of tropical and subtropical South America. Nevertheless, the broad representation of specimens of this group in scientific collections is hardly reflected in our knowledge of its taxonomic diversity. Most species currently assigned to Tropidurus began to be uncovered in the early 1980's and additional populations in need of formal taxonomic treatment have been cataloged ever since. Herein, we name Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., a new species of the T. torquatus group endemic to the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga. Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., is currently known from two isolated populations in the municipalities of Caetité and Ibotirama, State of Bahia, Brazil. This is the only species of the T. torquatus group lacking granular mite pockets on the lateral neck, and it is also diagnosable by having a conspicuous bronze-colored head, a light-brown dorsal body with small pale salmon spots, and small body size in comparison with most congeners. Phylogenetic analyses recovered a paraphyletic Tropidurus, but firmly supported T. sertanejo, n. sp., as member of a monophyletic T. torquatus species group. Trees generated by independent analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data conflicted with our total evidence phylogenetic hypotheses. Since topological disagreements were detected among phylogenetic trees resulting from maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions, and MP analyses do not require distinct evolutionary models or partition schemes to be defined prior to conduction of phylogenetic reconstruction, these factors were considered unlikely to explain all the variation in the observed results, favoring the interpretation of conflicting phylogenetic signal. Because detailed information on the distribution, population size, and ecological requirements of T. sertanejo, n. sp., are currently unavailable, we recommend the species to be listed as "data deficient" following the rules proposed by IUCN. ItemSupplemental Material for 'A new collared lizard (Tropidurus, Tropiduridae) endemic to the western Bolivian Andes and its implications for seasonally dry tropical forests. (American Museum novitates, no. 3896)'(2018-03-19) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes); Rivas, Luis Rolando; Céspedes, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut UrbanoSupplemental Material for 'A new collared lizard (Tropidurus, Tropiduridae) endemic to the western Bolivian Andes and its implications for seasonally dry tropical forests. (American Museum novitates, no. 3896)' ItemThree new species of the Tropidurus spinulosus group (Squamata, Tropiduridae) from eastern Paraguay. (American Museum novitates, no. 3853)(American Museum of Natural History., 2016-02-20) Carvalho, André L. G. (André Luiz Gomes)Tropidurus Wied, 1825, is one of the most ubiquitous lizard genera endemic to South America. Herpetologists from different regions of the continent have progressively mapped new populations, including undescribed species hidden under widely distributed nominal taxa. Currently, four monophyletic species groups are recognized in Tropidurus (T. bogerti group (monotypic), T. semitaeniatus group (four species), T. spinulosus group (five species), and T. torquatus group (16 species)), but none have been comprehensively revised taxonomically. During a collection expedition carried out in Paraguay in 2013, I recognized three new, distinct morphotypes among populations of the Tropidurus spinulosus group formerly assigned to T. guarani Alvarez et al., 1994. To delimit these new taxa, I analyzed coloration patterns, and quantified meristic and morphometric variables, comparing freshly collected samples with specimens housed in five museum collections. In this paper, I describe and illustrate the allopatric T. lagunablanca, n. sp., T. tarara, n. sp., and T. teyumirim, n. sp., and provide notes on their distribution limits, natural history, and conservation status.