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Brachyerix, a Miocene hedgehog from western North America, with a description of the tympanic regions of Paraechinus and Podogymnura. American Museum novitates ; no. 2477

Show simple item record Rich, Thomas H. V. en_US Rich, Pat Vickers. en_US 2005-10-06T16:34:12Z 2005-10-06T16:34:12Z 1971 en_US
dc.description 58 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 56-58). en_US
dc.description.abstract "Although living hedgehogs have long been regarded [as] the archetypes of the primitive placental mammal, they have nonetheless had a complex Cenozoic history that is reflected in the recognition of three extinct and two living erinaceid subfamilies. Members of one extinct subfamily, the Brachyericinae, underwent a remarkable shortening of the skull and a reduction in the number of teeth during the Oligocene, Miocene, and early Pliocene. This trend culminated in the two North American genera, Brachyerix and Metechinus, in which only three teeth were retained anterior to P[subscript]4. Dimylechinus, a European form from the early Miocene, and Exallerix from the medial Oligocene of Asia both retained at least four teeth anterior to P[subscript]4. None of the four genera had an M[subscript]3. Brachyerix and Metechinus occur from the Great Plains to the Pacific coast of North America. Brachyerix is temporally restricted to the Miocene; Metechinus occurs in late Miocene and early Pliocene sediments. Although both genera are known from several localities, they are never found together, which may reflect an ecological separation of these two forms during temporal overlap. Both are known only from cranial osteology. During the past 40 years, the differences between these two North American genera have not been well defined, and only now with the availability of several specimens of each can the generic boundaries be adequately reviewed. Two species of Brachyerix are recognized in the present paper. Brachyerix macrotis, restricted to the early and medial Miocene, is the larger of the two and differs from B. incertis, new combination (late Miocene), in having a stronger lingual cingulum on P[superscript]3 and in entirely lacking a P[superscript]3 protocone. Metechinus marslandensis can now be synonymized with B. macrotis, whereas Talpa incerta and Metechinus fergusoni are both junior synonyms of B. incertis. Only Metechinus nevadensis still requires generic separation owing to its unique basicranium, small auditory bullae, nature of the sagittal crest, and relatively anteroposteriorly compressed M[subscript]1 trigonid. Dimylechinus bernoullii is an adequate structural ancestor for Brachyerix macrotis and its descendents. However, as both Dimylechinus and Exallerix are known only from single specimens, their relationship to the North American brachyericines as well as to one another is not well understood and will not be until further specimens are found. An appendix describing the ear regions of two living hedgehog genera, Paraechinus and Podogymnura, is included to supplement Butler's (1948) paper on the erinaceid ear region. Paraechinus is the only living erinaceid that has bony tubes covering part of the blood vessels contained in the tympanic cavity, a condition developed to the extreme in the Miocene Brachyerix"--P. [1]-2. en_US
dc.format.extent 8979986 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York, N.Y. : American Museum of Natural History en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries American Museum novitates ; no. 2477 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QL1 .A436 no.2477, 1971 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Brachyerix macrotis. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Brachyerix incertis. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Hedgehogs, Fossil -- West (U.S.) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Mammals, Fossil -- West (U.S.) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Miocene -- West (U.S.) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- West (U.S.) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paraechinus -- Anatomy. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Podogymnura -- Anatomy. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Middle ear. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Hedgehogs -- Anatomy. en_US
dc.title Brachyerix, a Miocene hedgehog from western North America, with a description of the tympanic regions of Paraechinus and Podogymnura. American Museum novitates ; no. 2477 en_US
dc.title.alternative Description of the tympanic regions of Paraechinus and Podogymnura en_US
dc.type text en_US

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  • American Museum Novitates
    Novitates (Latin for "new acquaintances"), published continuously and numbered consecutively since 1921, are short papers that contain descriptions of new forms and reports in zoology, paleontology, and geology. New numbers are published at irregular intervals.

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