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The Enaliarctinae : a new group of extinct aquatic Carnivora and a consideration of the origin of the Otariidae. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 151, article 3

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dc.contributor.author Mitchell, Edward, 1939- en_US
dc.contributor.author Tedford, Richard H. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2005-10-06T15:00:06Z
dc.date.available 2005-10-06T15:00:06Z
dc.date.issued 1973 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1178
dc.description p. 203-284 : ill. ; 27 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 280-284). en_US
dc.description.abstract "The new genus and species Enaliarctos mealsi is based on two partial skulls and two natural endocranial casts discovered in the early Miocene Pyramid Hill Sand Member of the Jewett Sand at Pyramid Hill, Kern County, south-central California. The new mammalian subfamily Enaliarctinae is based on Enaliarctos mealsi. Enaliarctos mealsi was a medium-sized arctoid carnivore, a transitional species that departed in structure from terrestrial ursids (Hemicyoninae) and evolved in the direction of aquatic pinnipeds (Otariinae). Ursid features include presence and structure of upper and lower fourth premolars and of two molariform, quadrate-shaped upper molars; the development of sulcus cruciatus and the presence of an 'ursid lozenge'; and the morphology of the basicranium and middle ear. Features associated with aquatic adaptation include an enlarged narial chamber, reduced olfactory bulbs, wide snout, long and transversely arched palate, tendencies toward premolarization of the molars, narrow interorbital region, and enhanced brain circulation. A family Ursidae is recognized that includes primitive terrestrial ursids such as Cephalogale, Hemicyon, and Dinocyon in the subfamily Hemicyoninae. The Enaliarctinae is placed in Carnivora among the Otariidae near the Desmatophocinae. The Otariinae, specifically the Arctocephalini, might be descended from the Enaliarctinae. The phyletic lineage Hemicyoninae - Enaliarctinae - Otariinae emphasizes that the pinniped diphyly problem should be redefined to focus on the relationship of the Phocidae to even earlier Arctoidea. The Desmatophocinae might represent a third group independently derived from the middle-Tertiary adaptive radiation of Arctoidea. A lectotype for Neotherium mirum Kellogg, 1931 is chosen, and the species is included in the Enaliarctinae. The Pyramid Hill local fauna is named and characterized. The fauna comprises invertebrates and more than 39 species of Elasmobranchii, Teleostei, Chelonia, Aves, Squalodontidae (with a summary of northeast Pacific records), Delphinoidea, Mysticeti, Carnivora, Equidae (Anchitherium cf. A. agatensis), and Tayassuidae (Desmathyus sp.). The composition of the fauna indicates a warm-water, near-shore environment at the site of deposition. The Woody local fauna is named, characterized, and discussed. It is slightly higher stratigraphically in the same rock unit, 14 miles north of Pyramid Hill. We question Wilson's (1935) identifications of otariid pinnipeds from these rocks and doubt the validity of the 'phocid' record. The Pyramid Hill Sand can be assigned to the later Arikareean Land Mammal Age and to the Vaqueros Molluscan Stage, and it lies close to or includes the boundary between the Zemorrian and Saucesian Foraminiferal stages"--P. 205. en_US
dc.format.extent 28259062 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York : [American Museum of Natural History] en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ; v. 151, article 3 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QH1 .A4 vol.151, art.3, 1973 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Enaliarctos mealsi. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Eared seals, Fossil -- California -- Kern County. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Mammals, Fossil -- California -- Kern County. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- Miocene -- California -- Kern County. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Paleontology -- California -- Kern County. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Eared seals -- Evolution. en_US
dc.title The Enaliarctinae : a new group of extinct aquatic Carnivora and a consideration of the origin of the Otariidae. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 151, article 3 en_US
dc.title.alternative Enaliarctinae, a new group of extinct aquatic Carnivora en_US
dc.type text en_US


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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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