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Hybridization in the flickers (Colaptes) of North America. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 129, article 4

Show simple item record Short, Lester L. en_US 2005-10-06T14:54:49Z 2005-10-06T14:54:49Z 1965 en_US
dc.description p. 309-428 : ill., maps ; 27 cm. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 422-428). en_US
dc.description.abstract "Information is presented concerning the relationships, ecology, and behavior of North American flickers, Colaptes auratus, including the subspecies groups auratus, cafer, chrysoïdes, chrysocaulosus, and mexicanoïdes. 2. The situation of hybridization between the auratus and cafer groups of Colaptes auratus is analyzed, with the use of color and mensural characters. The hybrid zone, including the area in which 95 per cent or more of the flickers are hybrids, is a broad band of variable width extending from British Columbia eastward to Alberta and southward and eastward from there to Texas. 3. Evidence is presented for the occurrence of introgression in populations of auratus and cafer. Diminishing effects of hybridization are detectable in populations of auratus to the Atlantic Ocean, and cafer to the Pacific Ocean and Mexico. 4. Color characters used in the study were found to be somewhat correlated in hybrids but not to an extent invalidating their use as separate characters. No evidence for assortative mating was found in a study of the mating patterns of a limited number of hybrid pairs. 5. Localized hybridization occurs between the cafer and chrysoïdes groups. Considerable introgression has occurred, although the hybrids are found largely in hybrid swarms, more or less geographically isolated from parental populations. Some hybrid swarms have undergone partial stabilization. Evidence is offered that indicates that genes from eastern auratus populations, introgressing into the western cafer populations, are able to enter the chrysoïdes population as a result of the hybridization between cafer and chrysoïdes. 6. An attempt is made to trace the history of the hybrid situations in North American flickers. The hypothesis is developed that chrysoïdes originated in Baja California as an isolated cafer population. Hybridization between auratus and cafer has apparently occurred over a long period. Hybridization between cafer and chrysoïdes is thought to be of more recent occurrence. 7. Introgression was probably of major importance for the survival of some animal species in the Pleistocene and is probably a factor in their present success under conditions of constant human modification of the environment. 8. Selection, isolating mechanisms, and reinforcement are discussed in terms of the advantages of gene exchange between populations. Criteria are discussed for determination of the taxonomic status of hybridizing populations, including (a) hybridization along a broad area of contact between populations with strongly developed and those with poorly developed, or nondeveloped, isolating mechanisms; (b) hybridization along narrow contacts, involving populations exhibiting strongly and weakly developed isolating mechanisms; and (c) both ordinary and stabilized hybrid swarms, geographically isolated from their parental populations. 9. The North American flickers are considered to be conspecific. Five subspecies groups of the species Colaptes auratus are recognized. These are auratus, cafer, chrysoïdes, mexicanoïdes, and chrysocaulosus"--P. 421. en_US
dc.format.extent 22712935 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language eng en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher New York : [American Museum of Natural History] en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ; v. 129, article 4 en_US
dc.subject.lcc QH1 .A4 vol.129, art.4, 1965 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Colaptes. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Hybridization. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Birds -- North America. en_US
dc.title Hybridization in the flickers (Colaptes) of North America. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 129, article 4 en_US
dc.title.alternative Hybridization in flickers en_US
dc.type text en_US

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  • Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
    The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology. Current numbers are published at irregular intervals. The Bulletin was originally a place to publish short papers, while longer works appeared in the Memoirs. However, in the 1920s, the Memoirs ceased and the Bulletin series began publishing longer papers. A new series, the Novitates , published short papers describing new forms.

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